Concept of Business Process Re-engineering  

Business process re-engineering is an integrated set of disciplines for building or changing an enterprise, its processes, and systems. It integrates the most powerful change methods and makes them succeed. Business process re-engineering provides management with a tool box of change methods. It aims to select and integrates the most powerful methods so that management can plan and succeed with complex change while continuing to run the business (Nadler, 2006).

However, Kaizen (2009) opined that business process re-engineering is about the simplification of work to achieve higher quality, better results for customers, and lower costs. It is about replacing manual processes with automation, eliminating unnecessary bureaucracy, streaming and minimizing handoffs across departments providing the right information at the right time to the right people, eliminating unnecessary work, reducing unnecessary controls, empowering every employee and getting it right the first time.

However, Klein (2007) defines business process re-engineering as the rapid and radical redesign of strategic, value added business and the system policies and organizational structures that support them to optimize work flows and productivity within an organization. Johansson and Mchugh (2008) opined in their book “Business Process Reengineering: Breakpoint strategies for market Dominance,” defines business process reengineering as the means by which an organization can achieve radical change in performance, as measured by cost, cycle time, service and quality, by the application of a variety of tools and techniques that focus on the business as a set of related customer-oriented core business processes rather than a set of organizational functions.

Furthermore, Jacob (2009) defines (BPR) as an informed, participative process resulting in new ways of doing business that position an entire organization for success, now and into the future.

The above definitions emphasize dramatic, radical change, usually occurring in a short time frame that affect a core business process that cuts across functional lines and where the people, cumin empowerment element is crucial for success. In recent years a number of formal BPR case and other computer aided design tools have been employed to support the task of creating structure / process diagrams and modeling an organization’s data. Further, as companies achieve success and failure in this process, a number of stages in the BPR process have become clearly identified. Clearby B.PR is an on-going process critical to an organization’s success in a competitive market place.

BPR has being existing since 1900 but the history of business process reengineering in modern era. According to Darein (2009) came into limelight in 1990, when Michael Hammer, a former professor of Computer Science at the Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT), published an article in the Harvard Business Review, in which he claimed that the major challenge for managers is to obliterate non-value adding work, rather than using technology for automating it. This statement implicitly accused managers of having focused on the wrong issues, namely that technology in generally, and more specifically information technology, has been used primarily for automating existing processes rather them using it as an enabler for making non-value adding work obsolete.

Hammer’s claim was simple: most of the work being done does not add any value to customers, and this work should be removed, not accelerated through automation. Instead, companies should reconsider their processes in order to maximize customer value, while minimizing the consumption of resources for delivering their product or services. A similar idea was advocated by (Daverport, 1990). The concept of re-engineering traces its origins back to management theories developed as early as the nineteenth century. The purpose of re-engineering is to “make all your processes the best-in-class.” Frederick Taylor suggested in the 1880’s that managers could discover the best processes for performing work and reengineer them to optimize productivity. BPR echoes the classical belief that there is one best way to conduct tasks. In Taylor’s time, technology did not allow large companies to design processes in a cross functional or cross-departmental manner. Specialization was the state-of-the-art method to improve efficiency given the technology of the time.

In the early 1900’s, Henri Fayol originated the concept of re-engineering: “To conduct the undertaking towards its objectives by seeking to derive optimum advantage from all available resources.”

Although, the technological resources of our era have changed, the concept still holds. About the same time, another business engineer, Cyndallurinck stated, “it is not enough to hold people accountable for certain activities, it is also essential to delegate to them the necessary authority to discharge that responsibility.” This admonition foreshadows the idea of worker empowerment which is central to re-engineering.

Although Hammer and Champy (2007) declared that classical organization theory is obsolete, classical ideas such as division of labour have had an enduring power and applicability that reengineering has so far fail to demonstrate. BPR does not appear to qualify as a scientific theory, because, among other things, it is not duplicated and it has limited scope. The applicability of classical management theories, such as division of labor, were widely duplicable and portable. These ideas stimulated increases in productivity, output and income that led to the creation of the middle class.

If BPR is not a theory, but a technique, Hammer and Champy are surprisingly vague about the details. This paper attempts to fill in the blanks. Despite their vagueness, Hammer and Champy (2009) are clear about who to blame when re-engineering attempt to fail, it is the fault of the individual company. Cyert and March, among others, point out that conflict is often a driving forces in organizational behavior. BPR claims to stress framework, yet paradoxically, it must be “driven” by leader who is prepared to be ruthless. One executive with BPR experience warns not to assume.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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