THE MASS MEDIA AND ELECTORAL PROCESS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page - - - - - - - - - -
Declaration - - - - - - - - - -
Certification - - - - - - - - -
Acknowledge - - - - - - - - -
Abstract - - - - - - - - - -
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - -
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - -
1.4 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - -
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - -
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Definitions of Key Terms - - - - - -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature Review - - - - - - - -
2.1.1 The Mass Media: and the ‘Electoral Process
conceptual clarification - - - - - - -
2.1.2 Nigeria: The Mass Media and Electoral process in Nigeria:
A Historical Perspective
2.1.3 The mass media and Electoral process in Nigeria: 2005 General Election
2.1.4 The mass media and Electoral process in Nigeria:
The Pros and Cons - - - - - - - -
2.2 Theoretical Framework
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - -
3.2 Area of Study/Population - - - - - -3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique - - - -
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - - -
3.5 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - -
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - - -
4.2 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - -
References - - - - - -- - - -
Appendix I - - - - - - - - -
Appendix II - - - - - - - - -
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The topic “The Mass Media and Electoral Process in Nigeria” is as topically relevant as it is worthy of academic and intellectual focus. This is even more so, as emphasis is laid on Nigeria’s nascent democracy relative to its contemporaries of today’s global and modern democratic order. The rationale for a topical discourse as this is predicated on the overriding concerns as regard to the place of the mass media in Nigeria’s electoral process, with emphasis on Akwa Ibom State in the period between 2007 and 2015.
There is no gain saying that the subject of the mass media and electoral process in Nigeria has dominated the front burner of public discourse, and have conjured questions such as: The importance of Mass Media in Nigeria’s Electoral Process; the effect (if any) of the mass media on electoral process in Nigeria; mass media Pros and Cons in the context of Nigeria’s electoral process, inter alia.
Allied with the foregoing, this research aims at bringing academic illumination to bear on the grey areas of the subject of the research and also to provide adequate knowledge by bringing to the fore empirical findings of the researcher’s academic inquisition and a collection of scholarly views, intellectual postulations, documentary sources and other relevant contributions.
From the above, one could aver that the topic, “The Mass Media and Electoral Process in Nigeria” is a case in point. Efforts shall therefore be channel towards giving accurate exposition on the topic as well as demystify the correlation between the: ‘mass media’ and ‘Electoral process, with emphasis on how the former influences or is a determines to the latter.
1.2 Statement of Problem
There are peculiarities in Nigeria’s post-colonial democracy as well as contradictions with enormous problems and challenges, all of which constitutes a clog in the wheels of progress of our democracy. This is worrisome because the electoral process is sacrosanct by virtue of the fact that election remains one of the major planks on which democratic governance is premised. Ostensibly, the narrative surrounding Nigeria’s electoral process has been that of criticisms, controversy (ies), political rebellion, electoral fraud and the likes.
However, efforts at promulgating, improving or publicizing the electoral process in Nigeria has led to the identification of the mass media as a veritable tool in the electoral process hence these fundamental questions have kept on begging for answers:
⦁ What is the relationship between the mass media and the electoral process in Nigeria?
⦁ How beneficial has the mass media been towards improving the electoral process in Nigeria?
⦁ Has the mass media become a tool of disintegration in Nigeria’s electoral process?
⦁ What has been the contribution of the mass media to Nigeria’s democracy?
⦁ Is there really a cause-effect relationship between ‘mass media’ and ‘electoral process’?
The foregoing questions form the foundation on which this research is premised. Any attempt at enhancing Nigeria’s electoral process without due consideration to the aforementioned questions is tantamount to an effort in futility. Hence, the theme “Mass Media and Election Process in Nigeria” is a case in point.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The research aims at achieving the following objectives among others
1. To ascertain the correlation and/or relationship between mass media and electoral process.
2. To examine the link between mass media and electoral process in Nigeria, with contextual emphasis on the period between 2007 and 2015.
3. To identify and appraise the cause-effect implication that the mass media has on Nigeria’s electoral process.
4. To suggest workable solutions to the identified problem militating against the functional relationship between the mass media and the electoral process in Nigeria so as to improve the status –quo.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Here below are the hypotheses intended for use in this study. There are either subject to validation or refutation.
1. H0: There is no practical correlation between the mass media and electoral process in Nigeria.
H1: There is a practical correlation between the mass media and electoral process in Nigeria.
2. H0: There tend to be a cause – effect relationship between mass media and electoral process.
H1: There tend to be a cause-effect relationship between mass media and electoral process in Nigeria
3. H0: Effective regulation of the mass media is unlikely to positively impact Nigeria’s electoral process
H1: Effective regulation of the mass media is likely to positively impact Nigeria’s electoral process.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Considering the importance of the epistemological insights that this study hold, its significance cannot be downplayed. Besides a study of this fashion titled, “Mass Media and the Electoral process in Nigeria”, is significant is more ways than one, viz;
The study shall firstly, stimulate the much needed consciousness on the topic because it is very relevant as far as Nigeria’s nascent democratic dispensation is concerned. Moreover, this study will not only examine the correlation or link, but it will provide information that are considered to be the requisite panacea’ to the identifiable challenges confronting Nigeria’s electoral process.
Moreso, the significance of this study is also seen in the fact that the research work will be an empirical contribution to the archives of scholarly documentation and academic enquiries on the subject matter.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
This research is circumscribed with specific area(s) of coverage, even as it ha its limitation. As regards the scope of study, this research revolves around certain topical issues such as: the concept of mass media; the concept of electoral process; the pros and cons of the mass media in relation to the electoral process; Historical and contemporary analysis and or overview of the mass media and electoral process in Nigeria, with particular emphasis on Akwa Ibom State between 2007 and 2015.
With regard to the ‘Limitation of the study,’ this study is inexorably fraught with some limitations, viz; the researcher’s imperfection(s), bias and sentiments of the respondents as well as other issues, such as paucity of funds, time and material resources.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The key terms which constitute the research topic are worthy of definition in order to make for comprehension and proper application. The terms are: Mass Media’, ‘Electoral Process’, ‘Election’, ‘Nigeria’, and Akwa Ibom State
Definition of Terms
Mass Media: The Mass Media is a veritable tool for the production and reception of information. It connotes a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication and whose products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients.
Edika (2009) sees the Mass Media as "comprising both technical and institutional methods of production, commodification and distribution of information suitable for commercial utility through these technological outlets: Broadcast media (film, radio, recorded music, or television), Digital media (Internet and mobile mass communication), Internet media (email, social media sites, websites, and Internet-based radio and television) as well as other mass media outlets such as the web, Online TV ads, etc".
Also, the Mass Media constitutes information distribution mechanisms - a one to many forms of communication, whereby products of symbolic forms are mass-produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences, having wide reach to those far removed in time and space (Kanga, 2014).
Electoral Process: This entails a systematic sequence of politically related events in the conduct of elections and referendums as well as the determination of results. Electoral processes are organized by governments while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organizations and informal organizations.
According to Hibbatte (2009), Political process involves a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. This could lead to filling of vacancies or offices in the legislature, the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government.
Besides, electoral process consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral process(es) are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions, (Vandral, 2004)However, there are different types of elections for different offices The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.
Nigeria: Nigeria which is officially called the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country (Wikipedia).
Nigeria, a country birthed from colonial rule, is often referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18. The country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims, who live mostly in the north (Google, retrieved July 20, 2018)
Akwa Ibom: Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria. It is located in the coastal southern part of the country, lying between latitudes 4°32′N and 5°33′N, and longitudes 7°25′E and 8°25′E. The state is located in the South-South geopolitical zone, and is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State.
Akwa Ibom is one of Nigeria's 36 states, with a population of over five million people. The state was created in 1987 from the former Cross River State and is currently the highest oil and gas producing state in the country. The state's capital is Uyo, with over 500,000 inhabitants. In addition to English, the main spoken languages are Ibibio, Annang, Eket and Oron..