THE ROLE OF N-BUTANOL LEAF FRACTION OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PHENYL-HYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIA IN WISTAR RATS

THE ROLE OF N-BUTANOL LEAF FRACTION OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PHENYL-HYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIA IN WISTAR RATS

ABSTRACT

Anemia is a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. In the tropics, rural dwellers had to resort to herbal treatment in some cases of anemia. The main aim of this work was to ascertain the role of n-butanol leaf fraction of Telfairia Occidentalis on some hematological parameters in phenyl hydrazine induced anemia in wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult Wistar rats were used for this study. All animals were assayed for haematological parameters 1day before the onset of the experiment. The animals were grouped into five groups of five rats each (n =5). Anemia was induced in the Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Phenyl hydrazine Hydrochloride 50mg/kg w/w in DSMO once daily for 3 days. Group i. serves as the negative control group, received 50mg/kg of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride and 1ml/kg normal saline (untreated) group ii. serve as Positive control group received Vitamin B12 0.4ml/kg (standard haematinic) intramuscularly,while group iii, iv. and v. received 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight of n-butanol leaf fraction of Telfairia occidentalis for 2 weeks respectively. Asessment of RBC and WBC was carried out using the newly improved Neubauer counting chamber, PCV using the microhaematocrit reader, Hb using the AO-Hb meter and Bilirubin concentration using colorimetric estimation for the serum bilirubin. There was a significant (P<0 .05="" after="" and="" as="" bilirubin="" compared="" concentration="" control="" fraction="" groups="" hb="" in="" increase="" level="" of="" pcv="" rbc="" respectively.="" span="" the="" to="" treatment="" with="" x10="">6/ʯL as compared to 4.78±0.17x106/ʯL), PCV (50.60±0.51% as compared to 37.08±0.37%), HB (16.84±0.18 g/dl as compared to 12.56±0.13 g/dl), WBC (6.10±0.15 x109/L as compared to 6.17±0.88x109/L) and Bilirubin (18.16±0.08a ʯmol/L as compared to 15.54±0.21 ʯmol/L). However, the significant increase obtained from the results of RBC ,PCV and Bilurubin was not dose dependent while that of HB and WBC was dose dependent. In conclusion, Intraperitoneal administration of 50mg/kg Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride for 3days decreases the blood parameters below the pre-anemic level (1day before induction) due to the production of reactive oxygen species. Phytochemical screening of this leaf fraction indicates the presence of flavonoids, saponin secoiridoid glycosides and alkaloids, these natural antioxidants could be responsible for reversing the damaging effect of PHZ and thus playing a modulatory role and also maintaining the integrity of the RBC.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development (WHO, 2005). Anemia is a reduction from the normal quantity of circulating hemoglobin in the blood less than 13 g/dl for male and less than 12 g/dl for female adults (Okochi et al., 2003). It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children (Adam et al., 2005). Hemolytic anemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of Red Blood Cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular). It has numerous possible causes, ranging from relatively harmless to life-threatening (Telford et al., 2003). The general classification of hemolytic anemia is either inherited or acquired. Treatment depends on the cause and nature of the breakdown (Yamoto et al., 1998).

Anemia is the result of a wide variety of causes that can be isolated, but more often coexist. Globally, the most significant contributor to the onset of anemia is iron deficiency so that IDA and anemia are often used synonymously, and the prevalence of anemia has often been used as a proxy for IDA (De Maeyer, 1989). It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency, but the proportion may vary among population groups and in different areas according to the local conditions (De Maeyer, 1989).

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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