INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVEL ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN


INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVEL ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN 

Table of content

Title page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

Chapter one

1.0    introduction

1.1    objective

Chapter two

2.0    literature review

2.1    origin and distribution of soybean

2.2    the soybean plant

2.3    growth and development

2.4    flowering in soybean

2.5    pod development in soybean

2.6    physical characteristics and morphology of the soybean

2.7    conditions necessary for soybean production

2.8    soybean production

2.8    chemical composition

2.10    consumption

2.11    uses of soybean

Chapter three

3.0    materials and method

3.1    experimental site

3.2    agricultural practices and experimental layout

3.3    data collection

3.3.1    days to first flowering

3.3.2    days to first podding

3.3.3    days to maturity

3.3.4    number of plant harvested

3.3.5    biological yield of plant at harvest

3.3.6    plant height at harvest

3.3.7    height of lowest pod

3.3.8    number of pods per plant

3.3.9    shattering at harvest

3.4    lodging at harvest

3.4.1    100 seeds weight

3.4.2    grain yield

3.4.3    haulm yield

3.5    statistical analysis

Chapter four

4.0    result

4.1    mean square for grain yield and yield components of soybean

4.2    main effect of p on grain yield and yield components of

Eight soybean varieties planted at three levels of p

4.3    main effect of variety on grain yield and other agronomic traits of

Eight varieties of soybean evaluated across three levels of p

4.4    means for fertilizer x variety interaction

Chapter five

5.0    discussion

Chapter six

6.0    conclusion and recommendation

6.1    conclusion

6.2    recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION: INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVEL ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a member of the Fabaceae family, rich in nutrients. Soybean is not only seen as an oil plant but also used for various purposes. Among grain legumes, soybean is an economically important crop that is grown in diverse environments throughout the world. Its adaptation to tropical and subtropical regions is still involving extensive breeding work. To use land continuously for crop cultivation, incorporating organic and inorganic fertilizers to soil would provide multiple benefits for improving the chemical and physical status of the soil which results in improved crop yield (Ferguson et al.,2006).   

          Both organic and inorganic fertilizers are sources of mineral elements, which plants require for effective growth and development (Ferguson et al.,2006). Essential mineral elements are required in optimum amounts and are classified into micro and macro nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium have great effects in plant growth and development. Their deficiencies or excesses result in marked effects on the growth and yield of crops. Nitrogen is a chlorophyll component, and it promotes vegetative growth and green colouration of foliage. Phosphorus plays a major role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage, cell division, and maturation.According to Fageriaet al., (1995) large quantity of P fertilizer may be required for successful soybean production. Potassium is important in plant metabolism, protein synthesis, and chlorophyll development. The most important crop nutrients in agricultural systems are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) (Chiezey2001). Most compound fertilizers will contain three elements essential for plant growth: NPK which stands for nitrogen (promotes leaf growth), phosphorus (root, flower, and fruit), and potassium (stem and root growth and protein analysis). Soybean nitrogen (N) requirements are met in a complex manner, as this crop is capable of utilizing both soil N (mostly in the form of nitrate) and atmospheric N (through symbiotic nitrogen fixation) (Kakaret al., 2002).

          The use of fertilizer is considered to be one of the most important factors to increase crop yield. Legumes require P for adequate growth and N fixation and their effectiveness in soil improvement can be hindered by P deficiency (Giller and Cadisch, 1995). Phosphorous has been shown to be an essential element, and its application has been shown to be important for growth, development, and yield of soybean (Kakaret al., 2002). Phosphorus deficiency is probably one of the greatest constraints for agriculture. Fageriaet al., (1995) had earlier reported that large quantity of P fertilizer may be required for successful soybean production. 

1.1     Objective of the Study: INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVEL ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN

          The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of phosphorus level on the grain yield and yield components of soybean.

                    6.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

        6.1    Conclusion

From the data collected and analyzed, it can be concluded that observable response of traits to P application in soybeans can only be conveniently measured after fertilization. Based on the result of this research, it is also concluded that 33.0kgP2O5 is the most appropriate level of fertilizer application for soybean in Makurdi.

    It was observed that TGX 1991-10F,TGX 1448-2E and Savanna genotypes are the best adapted genotypes to the Southern Guinea Savanna ecology among the eight genotypes in terms of grain yield (t/ha). The trend in 100 seed weight was observed to be best in TGX 1990-101F, Milena and TGX 1991-10F genotype.

    The observation made from the highly significant interaction between fertilizer and variety for 100 seed weight showed that all the genotypes performed better at 33.0kgP2O5with variety TGX 1990-101F recording the highest 100 seed weight at the same level (33.0kgP2O5) of P.   6.2    Recommendation

    TGX 1991-10Fand Savanna genotypes had the highest grain yield acroos the three levels of phosphorus and thereforebe recommended to farmers at the rate of 33.0kgP2O5/ha.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVEL ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOYBEAN



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