Table of content

Title page………………..i




Table of content……...…v

Chapter one


1.1    Background of the study

1.2    statement of problem

1.3    justification

1.4    aim of the study

1.5    specific objective of the study

Chapter 2

literature review

2.1    botanical description.

2.2    cultivation

2.3 bacterial diseases of banana

2.3.1rhizome rot

2.3.2 moko disease

2.4 fungal diseases of banana:

2.4.1black sigotaka (black leaf streak):

2.4.2    anthracenose:

2.4.3 parnama disease (fusarium wilt)

2.4.4 yellow sigatoka

2.4.5    cider end rot:

2.5    viral diseases of banana

2.5.1    banana mosaic:

2.5.2    bunchy top:

2.6    storage of banana

2.6.1    banana storage in refrigerator

2.6.2    storage of banana in polythene bags

2.7    harvesting and post harvesting handling

Chapter three

materials and method

3.1    the study area

3.2    sample collection

3.3    media preparation

3.4    determinant of physicochemical parameters

3.4.1    ph

3.4.2    moisture content

3.5    total bacteria count

3.6    total fungus count

3.7    isolation and identification of bacteria isolates from fresh and spoilt


3.8    isolation and identification of fungal isolates

 3.8.1    fresh samples

3.8.2    spoilt samples.

3.9    identification test

3.10-gram reaction

3.11    catalase test

3.12    coagulase test

Chapter four

4.0 results

Chapter five

5.0 discussion, conclusion and recommendation

5.1 discussion

5.2 conclusion

5.3 recommendation





Banana is a long curved fruit which grows in clusters and has soft pulpy flesh and yellow skin when ripe.There are about 1000 varieties of bananas in the world. Banana is an edible fruit botanically a berry, produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries bananas used for cooking may be called plantains. The fruit is variable in size, colour and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe, (Mwan et al., 2007).

         In the developing world, banana is a major staple crop of considerable importance. Most producers and consumer of banana determines the quality of the banana by the colour of the peels. The colour of the fruit could serve as an indication of the state of deterioration, disease and/or confirmation (Crane et al., 2005).

1.1            Background of the study: 

In 2013, Canadians spent 875 billion on food, the largest share was spent on fruit production.

The global fruit processing industry has experienced consistent increased demand over the last five years, for processed fruit and fruit products and consumer spending has increased. Demand has grown particularly faster in developing economies as industrial growth has translated into greater urbanization, higher percental income and expansion in the size of the middle class has grown it has demanded larger quantities of higher quality more diverse food. Increase consumption of fruits can be attributed to more household becoming health centered (CSA, 2004).

Microorganisms, natural disaster such as earthquakes etc. has cause a substantial damage to fruit production and has naturally affected the Global fruit production.

          The quantity of bananas product in Nigeria has not been estimated. However it is known to be produced in varying amount within the following states: Abia, Awkaibom, Anambra, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Enugu, Kaduna and Ondo (FOS, 2015)

          Because of the massive production of banana fruit and poor storage and handling process, leads to spillage of banana fruit during the post-harvest period, (CSA, 2004).

1.2     Statement of Problem

Because of the world wide massive production of banana and as result of poor storage facilities this leads to large waste of banana due to spoilage

Microbial associated spoilage mostly is due to contamination from external sources during post harvest practices as a result of transport to the market or during storage of the fruit.During the ripening process, there are gradual series of changes in the colour of the banana from green to yellow. One should be able to distinguish between  spoilage and ripening of banana.

 Most banana affected with microorganisms (fungi or/and bacteria) usually get spoilt most at times at the middle of the ripening process or when the banana has become ripe.Banana fruit can be contaminated by microorganisms through skin penetration, natural opening or mechanical damage. There are two main microbes               (Fungi and Bacteria) involve in spoilage of banana, which reduce the quality of the banana fruit causing the fruit to be consideration and unmarketable. The storage life of banana fruits can be   improved using low temperature , 90% humility, removal of ethylene storing in 5% CO2 and 3% oxygen at 280c, use of chemicals and irradiation, use of packaging materials and fruit processing.

1.3     Justification of the Study:

There is highly consumption of banana in Nigeria also high loss due to spoilage.

The study centre on microorganisms associated with spoilage in fresh and spoilt banana. Thus this study will provide a data base on microbial spoilage of banana.

1.4     Aim of the study: 

To ISOLATE MICROORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH DETERIORATION OF  BANANAS FRUITS and to assess  common ways that have used to improved the shelf life of  the fruit sold in Makurdi Benue state.

1.5     Specific objective of the study: 

To isolate and identify micro organism associated with spoilage fresh Banana fruits in Makurdi. To isolate and identify micro organism associated with spoilt banana fruits sold in Makurd. The distribution of spoilage micro organisms among markets in Makurdi. To determine the physio chemical parameters of banana pulp.



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