INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.


INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.  

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       introduction

1.1       statement of problem

1.2 justifiction

1.3       aim and objectives of the study

Aim

Objectives

CHAPTER TWO

2.0                                 literature review

2.1       yoghurt, nono, madara

2.1.1 yoghurt

2.1.2 nono:

2.1.3 madara:

2.2  nutritional value of milk and product and health

2.3 milk contamination

2.3.1    the producing animal:

2.3.2    Udder:

milking barns: milking barn with good ventilation and neat floor avoids

2.3.3    Utensil:

2.3.5    milkers:

2.3.6    water:

2.3.7    milking method:

2.4 shelf life of milk and milk product

2.5       yoghurt

2.6       nono.

2.7 the normal flora of raw milk (madara)

2.8 microbial spoilage of dairy products

2.9 dairy product contamination by staphylococcus aureus

2.10 source of contamination and occurrence of staphylococcus aureus in

The environment and dairy products

2.11 conditions that favours the growth of staphylococcus aureus:

2.12 symptoms of staphylococcus food poisoning

2.13 prevention of staphylococcus aureus in dairy products

2.1.4 milk and dairy product contamination and effect by  escherichia coli

2.15 source of escherichia coli contamination

2.16 strains of diarrheagenic e.coli and mechanism of actions

2.17 contamination of dairy product by fungi

2.1.8    factors favouring fungal spoilage of diary

Product (yoghut, nono, madara)

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       materials and method

3.1  sample collection

3.2  media preparation

3.2.1 mannitol salt agar (msa)

3.2.2 mac conkey agar (mac)

3.2.3 nutrient agar

3.3 sample preparation

3.4 inoculation and incubation

3.5 isolation of pure culture

3. 6 colony count

3.7 identification of isolate.

3.7.1   gram staining/ microscopic identification

3.7.2 biochemical identification

3.7.2.1 coagulase test

3.7.2.2. Catalase test

3.7.2.3 sugar fermentation test

3.7.2.4 citrate test

3.7.2.5       Indole test

3.7.2.6 motility test

3.8         Antimicrobial susceptibility

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       result

4.1 the result of bacteria isolates.

2.2        The result of total mean count  of escherichia coli in cfu/ml of isolated in some dairy

4.3 the result of total mean count of staphylococcus aureus in cfu/ml of some dairy

Products.

2.3        Result of percentage occurrence of bacteria isolates in dairy products.

4.5 result of antimicrobial sensitivity testing of the isolates.

4.6 the result  of zone of inhibition of bacteria isolate in dairy products

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 discussion, conclusion and recommendation

5.1 discussion

5.2 conclusion

5.3   recommendation

References.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION:  INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.

Dairy products are various products derived from cow’s milk or that of other female mammals such as goat, sheep, yaks, horses, camel. Dairy products include yoghurt, nono (fermented cow’s milk, madara (unfermented cow’s milk, cheese, whey, condensed and evaporated milk.) (cultureforhealth, 2015).

Yoghurt, nono, Madara has become so highly valued in humans diet because of their nutritional values and their culinary possibilities (George and pamplon, 2006) Yoghurt is made by controlled thermoduric fermentation of pasteurized non-fat or low fat milk carried out around 45% (Prescott et al., 2005) . It is probably the most popular fermented milk in Nigeria. Yoghurt is a foods produced by bacterial fermentation of milk and these bacteria are known as “yoghurt cultures. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk and protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic tang. Also yoghurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture) usually Streptococcus thermopiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into milk, after inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46% (105 to 115%) until fermentation, the milk is coagulated by bacteria to produce lactic acid (serre et al., 2009)

Nono is an opaque white to milky coloured, liquid food drink gotten from fermented raw cow milk made locally (Godwin and Emmanuel, 2013). It is widely consumed in many African countries including Nigeria. Nono is of two types such as kindirimo and sallah though the nono is mostly termed kindirimo. Mostly the Fulani’s produce milk locally in Nigeria and the excess of the milk is processed into these products for preservation and use (Akinyele, et al., 1999). Also kindirimo is produced locally by pasteurized cow milk which are prepared by heating to boiling and then allowed to cool at 37c and the milk butter from the previous day is added to it at the rate of 0.5-1% of the amount of milk to be processed and then left overnight to become sour until it coagulate (Odunfa, et al., 1988)                                             

Madara is the unfermented raw milk collected from cow’s   under while nono is product form raw Milk collected from cow’s udder into a container called calabash and allowed to ferment naturally for 24hours. Nono is also more popular in term of public consumption than madara, this is because madara is rarely sold to public for direct consumption as compared to nono. Madara is produced in homes especially in villages where producers are ignorant of shelf-life and safety standards of the products nono is sold to both rural and urban dwellers as food (Uzeh, et al. 2006).

1.1     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Milk is a highly nutritious food that serves as an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganism. Milk and its’ derivatives are considered vehicle of Staphylococcus aureus for human infections and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The microbiological quality of milk and dairy products is influenced by the initial flora of raw milk, the processing conditions and post –heat treatment contamination. Un

.

INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.