Title page………………..i




Table of content……...…v


1.0       introduction

1.1       statement of problem

1.2 justifiction

1.3       aim and objectives of the study




2.0                                 literature review

2.1       yoghurt, nono, madara

2.1.1 yoghurt

2.1.2 nono:

2.1.3 madara:

2.2  nutritional value of milk and product and health

2.3 milk contamination

2.3.1    the producing animal:

2.3.2    Udder:

milking barns: milking barn with good ventilation and neat floor avoids

2.3.3    Utensil:

2.3.5    milkers:

2.3.6    water:

2.3.7    milking method:

2.4 shelf life of milk and milk product

2.5       yoghurt

2.6       nono.

2.7 the normal flora of raw milk (madara)

2.8 microbial spoilage of dairy products

2.9 dairy product contamination by staphylococcus aureus

2.10 source of contamination and occurrence of staphylococcus aureus in

The environment and dairy products

2.11 conditions that favours the growth of staphylococcus aureus:

2.12 symptoms of staphylococcus food poisoning

2.13 prevention of staphylococcus aureus in dairy products

2.1.4 milk and dairy product contamination and effect by  escherichia coli

2.15 source of escherichia coli contamination

2.16 strains of diarrheagenic e.coli and mechanism of actions

2.17 contamination of dairy product by fungi

2.1.8    factors favouring fungal spoilage of diary

Product (yoghut, nono, madara)


3.0       materials and method

3.1  sample collection

3.2  media preparation

3.2.1 mannitol salt agar (msa)

3.2.2 mac conkey agar (mac)

3.2.3 nutrient agar

3.3 sample preparation

3.4 inoculation and incubation

3.5 isolation of pure culture

3. 6 colony count

3.7 identification of isolate.

3.7.1   gram staining/ microscopic identification

3.7.2 biochemical identification coagulase test Catalase test sugar fermentation test citrate test       Indole test motility test

3.8         Antimicrobial susceptibility


4.0       result

4.1 the result of bacteria isolates.

2.2        The result of total mean count  of escherichia coli in cfu/ml of isolated in some dairy

4.3 the result of total mean count of staphylococcus aureus in cfu/ml of some dairy


2.3        Result of percentage occurrence of bacteria isolates in dairy products.

4.5 result of antimicrobial sensitivity testing of the isolates.

4.6 the result  of zone of inhibition of bacteria isolate in dairy products


5.0 discussion, conclusion and recommendation

5.1 discussion

5.2 conclusion

5.3   recommendation




Dairy products are various products derived from cow’s milk or that of other female mammals such as goat, sheep, yaks, horses, camel. Dairy products include yoghurt, nono (fermented cow’s milk, madara (unfermented cow’s milk, cheese, whey, condensed and evaporated milk.) (cultureforhealth, 2015).

Yoghurt, nono, Madara has become so highly valued in humans diet because of their nutritional values and their culinary possibilities (George and pamplon, 2006) Yoghurt is made by controlled thermoduric fermentation of pasteurized non-fat or low fat milk carried out around 45% (Prescott et al., 2005) . It is probably the most popular fermented milk in Nigeria. Yoghurt is a foods produced by bacterial fermentation of milk and these bacteria are known as “yoghurt cultures. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk and protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic tang. Also yoghurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture) usually Streptococcus thermopiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into milk, after inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46% (105 to 115%) until fermentation, the milk is coagulated by bacteria to produce lactic acid (serre et al., 2009)

Nono is an opaque white to milky coloured, liquid food drink gotten from fermented raw cow milk made locally (Godwin and Emmanuel, 2013). It is widely consumed in many African countries including Nigeria. Nono is of two types such as kindirimo and sallah though the nono is mostly termed kindirimo. Mostly the Fulani’s produce milk locally in Nigeria and the excess of the milk is processed into these products for preservation and use (Akinyele, et al., 1999). Also kindirimo is produced locally by pasteurized cow milk which are prepared by heating to boiling and then allowed to cool at 37c and the milk butter from the previous day is added to it at the rate of 0.5-1% of the amount of milk to be processed and then left overnight to become sour until it coagulate (Odunfa, et al., 1988)                                             

Madara is the unfermented raw milk collected from cow’s   under while nono is product form raw Milk collected from cow’s udder into a container called calabash and allowed to ferment naturally for 24hours. Nono is also more popular in term of public consumption than madara, this is because madara is rarely sold to public for direct consumption as compared to nono. Madara is produced in homes especially in villages where producers are ignorant of shelf-life and safety standards of the products nono is sold to both rural and urban dwellers as food (Uzeh, et al. 2006).


Milk is a highly nutritious food that serves as an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganism. Milk and its’ derivatives are considered vehicle of Staphylococcus aureus for human infections and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The microbiological quality of milk and dairy products is influenced by the initial flora of raw milk, the processing conditions and post –heat treatment contamination. Un



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