Far way back in 1900, while drilling an oil well in Spindle tops Texas, the drilling crew used various muddy slurry of water and clay as drilling mud. Today drilling fluids are still called drilling mud, but engineers no longer rely only on a mixture of water and clay. Instead, they carefully design compounds and mixtures with both local and foreign materials to meet specific needs of drilling operation under various drilling conditions. Modern and modified drilling fluids are truly life blood of the wells.

Drilling mud is a mixture of two or more phases consisting of a liquid phase (water, oil, or other synthentic oil)  and a solid phase consisting of clay mixed with addition of certain chemical substances (additives). Drilling mud performs several functions, some of which are lubricating the bit, transporting cuttings to the surface, control of formation pressure. It is also called the life blood of the rotary drilling operation, in the sense that without it, drilling is almost impossible.

Considering the desired formation condition and reactive chemical compounds encountered by the drilling mud during the drilling operation, it is necessary to continually monitor the mud properties and prescribe possible solution to keep the fluid in good condition. Properties that must be monitored include; mud weight, viscosity, filtration properties, pH. Certain materials are used to improve these properties.

This project is concerned with enhancing the pH of drilling mud using egg shell and snail shell as local additives for the substitution of imported chemicals such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) . The control of pH is very essential in the drilling operation as most of the equipment used are made of metal and pH is the degree  of acidity or alkalinity of a substance,  hence if the drilling mud is acidic( pH less than 7), corrosion of the drilling equipment is bound to take place. Therefore when drilling operation is being performed in an acidic formation, the drill pipe, drill collars and drilling bit will corrode as a result of the acidity of the subsurface, hence the need of enhancing or improving the pH of the drilling mud have to be properly taken care of, by certain pH enhancers or modifiers.

This research therefore aims to study the suitability of egg shell and snail shell as local additives to enhance the pH of mud, both materials are easily accessible as waste and biodegradable hence using egg shell and snail shell will reduce cost and also improve waste management.

1.2             AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim and objective of this work is to investigate in the laboratory the suitability of egg shell and snail shell waste as local materials in improving the pH of mud.

1.3             SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This work is restricted only to the use of prepared samples of egg shell and snail shell as pH enhancers.

1.4             METHODOLOGY

The mode of the research to be employed in this work include review of past projects, internet information, books, and empirical analysis in the laboratory.



The result obtained when the eggshell used as  a pH control agent was added to the prepared water based drilling mud shows that the egg shell is a very good local and it can be used as a substitute of the standard pH additives as it exhibits the standard properties drilling mud.

The result obtained when snail shell was used as pH control agent shows that it can be used as a substitute of the standard pH additive as it exhibits the standard pH property of the drilling mud.   5.2     RECOMMENDATION

Based on the data from the analysis and practical carried out, it is recommended that egg shell can be used as a substitute of imported pH additives such as NaOH and KOH to control muds pH as it raised the pH value for drilling mud to the standard range of pH value for drilling mud and does not undergo large change with time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Snail shell can also be used as substitute of imported pH control agents as it raised the pH value for drilling mud to the standard range of pH value for drilling mud and does not undergo large change with time.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing