THE SUITABILITY OF EGGSHELL AND SNAIL SHELL WASTE AS LOCAL MATERIALS IN IMPROVING THE PH OF MUD


THE SUITABILITY OF EGGSHELL AND SNAIL SHELL WASTE AS LOCAL MATERIALS IN IMPROVING THE PH OF MUD

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Far way back in 1900, while drilling an oil well in Spindle tops Texas, the drilling crew used various muddy slurry of water and clay as drilling mud. Today drilling fluids are still called drilling mud, but engineers no longer rely only on a mixture of water and clay. Instead, they carefully design compounds and mixtures with both local and foreign materials to meet specific needs of drilling operation under various drilling conditions. Modern and modified drilling fluids are truly life blood of the wells.

Drilling mud is a mixture of two or more phases consisting of a liquid phase (water, oil, or other synthentic oil)  and a solid phase consisting of clay mixed with addition of certain chemical substances (additives). Drilling mud performs several functions, some of which are lubricating the bit, transporting cuttings to the surface, control of formation pressure. It is also called the life blood of the rotary drilling operation, in the sense that without it, drilling is almost impossible.

Considering the desired formation condition and reactive chemical compounds encountered by the drilling mud during the drilling operation, it is necessary to continually monitor the mud properties and prescribe possible solution to keep the fluid in good condition. Properties that must be monitored include; mud weight, viscosity, filtration properties, pH. Certain materials are used to improve these properties.

This project is concerned with enhancing the pH of drilling mud using egg shell and snail shell as local additives for the substitution of imported chemicals such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) . The control of pH is very essential in the drilling operation as most of the equipment used are made of metal and pH is the degree  of acidity or alkalinity of a substance,  hence if the drilling mud is acidic( pH less than 7), corrosion of the drilling equipment is bound to take place. Therefore when drilling operation is being performed in an acidic formation, the drill pipe, drill collars and drilling bit will corrode as a result of the acidity of the subsurface, hence the need of enhancing or improving the pH of the drilling mud have to be properly taken care of, by certain pH enhancers or modifiers.

This research therefore aims to study the suitability of egg shell and snail shell as local additives to enhance the pH of mud, both materials are easily accessible as waste and biodegradable hence using egg shell and snail shell will reduce cost and also improve waste management.

1.2             AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim and objective of this work is to investigate in the laboratory the suitability of egg shell and snail shell waste as local materials in improving the pH of mud.

1.3             SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This work is restricted only to the use of prepared samples of egg shell and snail shell as pH enhancers.

1.4             METHODOLOGY

The mode of the research to be employed in this work include review of past projects, internet information, books, and empirical analysis in the laboratory.

            CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     CONCLUSION

The result obtained when the eggshell used as  a pH control agent was added to the prepared water based drilling mud shows that the egg shell is a very good local and it can be used as a substitute of the standard pH additives as it exhibits the standard properties drilling mud.

The result obtained when snail shell was used as pH control agent shows that it can be used as a substitute of the standard pH additive as it exhibits the standard pH property of the drilling mud.   5.2     RECOMMENDATION

Based on the data from the analysis and practical carried out, it is recommended that egg shell can be used as a substitute of imported pH additives such as NaOH and KOH to control muds pH as it raised the pH value for drilling mud to the standard range of pH value for drilling mud and does not undergo large change with time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Snail shell can also be used as substitute of imported pH control agents as it raised the pH value for drilling mud to the standard range of pH value for drilling mud and does not undergo large change with time.

.

THE SUITABILITY OF EGGSHELL AND SNAIL SHELL WASTE AS LOCAL MATERIALS IN IMPROVING THE PH OF MUD



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