ESTIMATING SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK FROM IN-SITU REBOUND VALUES (A CASE STUDY OF OREKE OPEN PIT QUARRY)


ESTIMATING SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK FROM IN-SITU REBOUND VALUES (A CASE STUDY OF OREKE OPEN PIT QUARRY)  

ABSTRACT

The research deals with estimating some mechanical properties of rock from in-situ rebound value in Oreke open pit quarry ,N-Type  Schmidt rebound hammer data were collected from Oreke open pit .the data were collected with the view to ascertain the suitability of Schmidt hammer for quick ,cheap and less cumber some estimation of the uniaxial compressive strength of marble .The data collection was strictly carried out by ASTM and suggested equation by different authors.UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH,DENSITY, YOUNG MODULUS were determined using value conversion graph.UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH for location 1 was 70MPa which mean the rock is medium in classification and location 2 and 3 was 55MPa which also mean the rock marble medium is classification and typical rock, type is competent metamorphic  rock.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

CERTIFICATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES ix

CHAPTER ONE 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES. 2

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT 3

1.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA 3

CHAPTER TWO 4

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 CONCEPT OF SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER 4

2.2 GEOLOGICAL FORMATION OF MARBLE 8

2.3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MARBLE 11

CHAPTER THREE 14

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (DESK WORK) 14

3.1 DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY 14

3.2 PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING REBOUND HAMMER VALUE 15

3.3 CONVERTED FROM N – L TYPE DATA 16

3.4 ESTIMATING UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MARBLE (UCS) 16

3.5 ESTIMATING OF DENSITY 18

3.6 ESTIMATING OF YOUNG’S MODULUS 19

CHAPTER FOUR 21

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 21

4.1 RESULTS 21

4.1.1 DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY 21

4.1.2 PROCESSING PROCEDURE 24

4.1.3 CONVERTED FROM N-TYPE TO L-TYPE DATA 25

4.1.4 ESTIMATION UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 26

4.1.5 ESTIMATED DENSITY 28

4.2 ESTIMATED YOUNGʹS MODULUS 29

4.3 DISCUSSION 31

CHAPTER FIVE 32

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 32

5.1      CONCLUSION 32

5.2      RECOMMENDATION 32

REFERENCES33

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES                                     TITLE PAGE

 4.1: Determination of Bulk Density for Location 1; 22

4.2: Density Test Result for Location 2 22

 4.3: Density Test Result for Location 3 23

 4.4: Field Rebound Values 24

 4.5: Standard Procedure of Bulk Density Determination 30

 4.6: Standard for Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) 31

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES                                     TITLE PAGES

1: Details of an L type Schmidt hammer 7

2: Conversion Graph 27

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Rock mechanics engineers design structures built in rock for various purposes,   and therefore need to determine the properties and behavior of the rock. The UCS of rocks is one of the important input parameters used in rock engineering projects such as design of underground spaces, rock blasting, drilling, slope stability analysis, excavations and many other civil and mining operations. ISRM (1981) testing of this mechanical property in the laboratory is a simple procedure in theory but in practice, it is among the most expensive and time-consuming tests. This calls for transportation of the rock to the laboratory, sample preparation and testing based on the international standards. In order to carry out these standard tests, special samples, such as cylindrical core or cubical samples, need to be prepared. Preparing core samples is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the preparation of regular-shaped samples from weak or fractured rock masses is also difficult.  Under these circumstances, the application of other simple and low-cost methods to carry out the above tasks with acceptable reliability and accuracy will be important. Therefore, indirect tests are often used to estimate the UCS, such as Schmidt hammer, point load index and sound velocity. Indirect tests are simpler, require less preparation and can be adapted more easily to field testing (Feneret al. 2005).

The Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test is a simple and non-destructive test originally developed in 1948 for a quick measurement of USC and later was extended to estimate the hardness and strength of rock. The mechanism of operation is simple: a hammer released by a spring, indirectly impacts against the rock surface through a plunger and the rebound distance of the hammer is then red directly from the numerical scale or electronic display ranging from 10 to 100. In other words, the rebound distance of the hammer mass that strikes the rock through the plunger and under the force of a spring, indicates the rebound hardness. Obviously, the harder the surface, the higher the rebound distances. (Torabiet al. 2010; Schmidt, 1951).

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES.

Aim

The aim is to estimate some mechanical properties of rock from in-situ using Schmidt rebound hammer.

Objectives

To determine the mechanical properties of marble deposit.

To determine it suitability for industrial purposes

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Collapse ,cracking of building and pot hole in roads has been an issue of concern in construction industries which may be caused due to lack of understanding and characteristic of rock lead to pre-failure and post failure so estimating will help to determine its utility and application

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

To test for mechanical properties of Marble in Oreke using parameters such as Universal Compressive Strength, Young modulus, density etc with the aid of Schmidt rebound hammer.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT

In determining the mechanical properties of marble with the constructed machine, so as to serve has a model for student in mineral exploration and relevant field of engineering which could serve as a guide to educate student by acquiring practical knowledge on how the Schmidt rebound hammer is being use and detailed maintenance.

1.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA

Oreke is about 120km south east of Ilorin, Kwara State. It is located at Ifelodun Area in Kwara State at Ire district, the senatorial district is known South. The marble site is about 4.5km South East of Oreke, about 2km access road from the site heads to Oreke Ore Ago road, Oreke is 2.5km from the access road.

Marble in Oreke is strictly dolomite, Oreke marble deposit covers up to 7 cadastral unit. A cadastral unit is about 450 metres. Abdulfatah, 2016.

.

ESTIMATING SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK FROM IN-SITU REBOUND VALUES (A CASE STUDY OF OREKE OPEN PIT QUARRY)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.