ESTIMATING SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK FROM IN-SITU REBOUND VALUES (A CASE STUDY OF OREKE OPEN PIT QUARRY)
The research deals with estimating some mechanical properties of rock from in-situ rebound value in Oreke open pit quarry ,N-Type Schmidt rebound hammer data were collected from Oreke open pit .the data were collected with the view to ascertain the suitability of Schmidt hammer for quick ,cheap and less cumber some estimation of the uniaxial compressive strength of marble .The data collection was strictly carried out by ASTM and suggested equation by different authors.UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH,DENSITY, YOUNG MODULUS were determined using value conversion graph.UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH for location 1 was 70MPa which mean the rock is medium in classification and location 2 and 3 was 55MPa which also mean the rock marble medium is classification and typical rock, type is competent metamorphic rock.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES. 2
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT 3
1.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA 3
CHAPTER TWO 4
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 CONCEPT OF SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER 4
2.2 GEOLOGICAL FORMATION OF MARBLE 8
2.3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MARBLE 11
CHAPTER THREE 14
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (DESK WORK) 14
3.1 DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY 14
3.2 PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTING REBOUND HAMMER VALUE 15
3.3 CONVERTED FROM N – L TYPE DATA 16
3.4 ESTIMATING UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MARBLE (UCS) 16
3.5 ESTIMATING OF DENSITY 18
3.6 ESTIMATING OF YOUNG’S MODULUS 19
CHAPTER FOUR 21
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 21
4.1 RESULTS 21
4.1.1 DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY 21
4.1.2 PROCESSING PROCEDURE 24
4.1.3 CONVERTED FROM N-TYPE TO L-TYPE DATA 25
4.1.4 ESTIMATION UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 26
4.1.5 ESTIMATED DENSITY 28
4.2 ESTIMATED YOUNGʹS MODULUS 29
4.3 DISCUSSION 31
CHAPTER FIVE 32
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 32
5.1 CONCLUSION 32
5.2 RECOMMENDATION 32
LIST OF TABLES
TABLES TITLE PAGE
4.1: Determination of Bulk Density for Location 1; 22
4.2: Density Test Result for Location 2 22
4.3: Density Test Result for Location 3 23
4.4: Field Rebound Values 24
4.5: Standard Procedure of Bulk Density Determination 30
4.6: Standard for Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) 31
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES TITLE PAGES
1: Details of an L type Schmidt hammer 7
2: Conversion Graph 27
Rock mechanics engineers design structures built in rock for various purposes, and therefore need to determine the properties and behavior of the rock. The UCS of rocks is one of the important input parameters used in rock engineering projects such as design of underground spaces, rock blasting, drilling, slope stability analysis, excavations and many other civil and mining operations. ISRM (1981) testing of this mechanical property in the laboratory is a simple procedure in theory but in practice, it is among the most expensive and time-consuming tests. This calls for transportation of the rock to the laboratory, sample preparation and testing based on the international standards. In order to carry out these standard tests, special samples, such as cylindrical core or cubical samples, need to be prepared. Preparing core samples is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the preparation of regular-shaped samples from weak or fractured rock masses is also difficult. Under these circumstances, the application of other simple and low-cost methods to carry out the above tasks with acceptable reliability and accuracy will be important. Therefore, indirect tests are often used to estimate the UCS, such as Schmidt hammer, point load index and sound velocity. Indirect tests are simpler, require less preparation and can be adapted more easily to field testing (Feneret al. 2005).
The Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test is a simple and non-destructive test originally developed in 1948 for a quick measurement of USC and later was extended to estimate the hardness and strength of rock. The mechanism of operation is simple: a hammer released by a spring, indirectly impacts against the rock surface through a plunger and the rebound distance of the hammer is then red directly from the numerical scale or electronic display ranging from 10 to 100. In other words, the rebound distance of the hammer mass that strikes the rock through the plunger and under the force of a spring, indicates the rebound hardness. Obviously, the harder the surface, the higher the rebound distances. (Torabiet al. 2010; Schmidt, 1951).
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES.
The aim is to estimate some mechanical properties of rock from in-situ using Schmidt rebound hammer.
To determine the mechanical properties of marble deposit.
To determine it suitability for industrial purposes
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Collapse ,cracking of building and pot hole in roads has been an issue of concern in construction industries which may be caused due to lack of understanding and characteristic of rock lead to pre-failure and post failure so estimating will help to determine its utility and application
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
To test for mechanical properties of Marble in Oreke using parameters such as Universal Compressive Strength, Young modulus, density etc with the aid of Schmidt rebound hammer.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
In determining the mechanical properties of marble with the constructed machine, so as to serve has a model for student in mineral exploration and relevant field of engineering which could serve as a guide to educate student by acquiring practical knowledge on how the Schmidt rebound hammer is being use and detailed maintenance.
1.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA
Oreke is about 120km south east of Ilorin, Kwara State. It is located at Ifelodun Area in Kwara State at Ire district, the senatorial district is known South. The marble site is about 4.5km South East of Oreke, about 2km access road from the site heads to Oreke Ore Ago road, Oreke is 2.5km from the access road.
Marble in Oreke is strictly dolomite, Oreke marble deposit covers up to 7 cadastral unit. A cadastral unit is about 450 metres. Abdulfatah, 2016..