EFFECT OF OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON SECRETARY'S PRODUCTIVITY


EFFECT OF OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON SECRETARY'S PRODUCTIVITY   

ABSTRACT

The paper critically analyses effects of office environment on secretary’s productivity. People are beginning to be conscious of the fact that to be happy and cheerful in one’s work place, some conditions must be present even with little pay. For example, notwithstanding whatever is provided for a secretary for her job, if she is not equipped, all that is provided comes to naught. The major objectives of the paper are: to determine the extent to which the environment factors such as noise, ventilation, lack of enough space in the office and equipment can hinder the performance of secretary in an organization, To find out and ascertain the effect of environment condition to the working secretary in an organization, to encourage the organization to acquire more office automation for effectives efficiency of secretary and to provide organization with mores ideas for a conducive environment for the workers.

Concerning methodology, both secondary and primary sources of data was used for the study. A survey research design coupled with a multi-stage sampling technique was used with a sample size of 10 secretaries’ federal polytechnic KauraNamoda. Data was analyzed and represented in frequency tables and percentages. Key findings from the study showed that the responses said noise of the machines and colleagues distract the attentions of the secretaries in the offices. Most secretaries said that they do not have enough toilet facilities, good first aid box and likewise their offices were not being clean regularly.

Recommendations for the study include; enough toilet facilities should be constructed so as to assist the workers if they want to ease themselves from entering into bushes, which can cause serious problems to the workers’ health.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Approval Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

Declaration    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    vi

Table of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    

1.2    Statement of General Problem    -    -    -    -    

1.3    Objective of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    

1.4    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    

1.5    Limitations    -    -    -    -    -    -    -        

1.6   Delimitation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -        

1.7    Significance of the study    -    -    -    -    -            

1.8    Historical background of the case study    -    -            

1.9    Definition of terms    -    -    -    -    -    -        

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    

2.2    WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT    -    -    -    -    -    -    

2.3    WHO IS A SECRETARY    -    -    -    -    -    -    

2.4    ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS    -    -    -    -    -        

2.5 EMPIRICAL REVIEW    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    

3.2    POPULATION-    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

3.3    SAMPLE SIZE-    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

3.4    DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT-    -    -    -    -    

3.5    METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS-    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    -

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents    -    -    -    -    -

4.3    Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

4.5    Summary of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

4.6    Discussion of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

5.1    Summary    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

5.3    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

    References -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

Appendix    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE

    According to Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary, “environment is defined as the natural conditions in which people, animals and plants lives”.  Environment can also be defined as “all the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things”.  It is the act or fact of surrounding in other words, environment means the surrounding in which living things live.  Therefore, environment for the purpose of this research refers to the office environment.  This type of environment gives secretaries good working relationship and enhance high productivity.

    The secretary’s environment can be divided into two:

1.    Immediate environment

2.    Remote environment

⦁    Immediate environment:  refers to the secretary’s very office and other offices, of the same organization

⦁    The Remote environment:  means the outside environment of the secretary’s office or building that has a negative effect such as, ventilation, noise, temperature, overcrowding, cleanliness, lighting, attitude of office colleagues etc.  It is therefore, a prime importance for employers to make environment as conducive as possible for the secretary’s higher productivity which is ultimate goal of any employer.  Creating selection, arrangement, and use of sample physical surrounding chairs, tables, storage, lighting, decorating and other physical element that comprises your personal office are mans of enhancing competences as well as the image of an organization.

An improved office environment will result in a reduction in a number of complaints and absenteeism and will bring an increase in productivity, Roelofson (2002).

Secretary  makes critical difference between success and failure. The effectiveness with which organizations manage, 15 develop, motivate and engage the willing contribution of the secretary  will enable them to capitalize on their expertise most efficiently. There is a link between people management and business performance. According to Roelofson one of the fundamental human requirements is office environment that allows people to perform their work optimally under comfortable condition. People are beginning to be conscious of the fact that to be happy and cheerful in one’s work place, some conditions must be present even with little pay. For example, notwithstanding whatever is provided for a seamstress for her job, if there is no machine, all that is provided comes to naught. Again, when a librarian is provided for a noisy environment, he will not carry out his work effectively because the environment suitable for effective library function is quietness and orderliness. Similarly, an Accountant who deals with figures will be annoyed if he is sharing a calculator with four staff members. Also, the secretary is looked upon as human machine, trained with the responsibility of taking note of what others may regard as minor and making suggestions based on records available. To effectively carry out these and other functions, the secretary needs a ‘high-tech’ office where some electronic machines will complement his/her human ability. In an employment situation, the secretary  promises to live up to expectation. The employer expects nothing less. But the point is: has the employer provided a office environment that will facilitate the effective discharge of the secretary ’ assigned duties? Most employers keep complaining of poor returns from secretary  without taking out time to find out why the new employer has not performed beyond what the former one was able to do. If an organization provides its secretary  with better work and most conducive office environment they can perform exceptionally well, and companies can capitalize on their enhanced productivity in the shape of cost reduction, which will ultimately contribute awards rich profits. The relationship between secretary  attitudes and company performance, as suggested by Patterson et’ al., (1997), is highly correlated. They suggested that managers of organizations who are eager to promote productivity and Profitability should pay close attention to the attitudes of their secretary  in order to make them more positive.

In the light of above this research will focuses on the effects of environment on secretary’s productivity, it will look at some of the areas like poor ventilation, lighting, cleanliness, internal noise, heating all these are factors that can affect the productivity of working secretary in an office environment.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

    People are beginning to be conscious of the fact that to be happy and cheerful in one’s work place, some conditions must be present even with little pay. For example, notwithstanding whatever is provided for a secretary for her job, if she is not equipped, all that is provided comes to naught. Taking it to a librarian is provided for a noisy environment, he will not carry out his work effectively because the environment suitable for effective library function is quietness and orderliness. Similarly, an Accountant who deals with figures will be annoyed if he is sharing a calculator with four staff members. Also, the secretary is looked upon as human machine, trained with the responsibility of taking note of what others may regard as minor and making suggestions based on records available. To effectively carry out these and other functions, the secretary needs a ‘hightech’ office where some electronic machines will complement his/her human ability. In an employment situation, the secretary  promises to live up to expectation. The employer expects nothing less. But the point is: has the employer provided a office environment that will facilitate the effective discharge of the secretary ’ assigned duties? Most employers keep complaining of poor returns from secretary  without taking out time to find out why the new employer has not performed beyond what the former one was able to do. If an organization provides its secretary  with better work and most conducive office environment they can perform exceptionally well, and companies can capitalize on their enhanced productivity in the shape of cost reduction, which will ultimately contribute awards rich profits. The relationship between secretary  attitudes and company performance, as suggested by Patterson et’ al., (1997), is highly correlated.

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

I.    To find out and ascertain the effect of environment condition to the working secretary in an organization.

II.    To encourage the organization to acquire more office automation for effectives efficiency of secretary

III.    To provide organization with mores ideas for a conducive environment for the workers

iv. To determine the extent to which the environment factors such as noise, ventilation, lack of enough space in the office and equipment can hinder the performance of secretary in an organization.

1.4    RESEARCHER QUESTIONS

i.    Does lack of constant power supply in an office affect the performance of a secretary?

ii.    Does too much noise in an office affect the secretary’s productivity?

iii.    Does an office which is not clean and tidy, brings about low productivity?

iv.    Do stuffy environment causes drowsiness, which in turn produces less accurate work?

1.5    LIMITATION

    The research work is limited to the case study that is the Federal Polytechnic KauraNamoda.

1.6    DELIMITATION

The study therefore, will highly be concentrated on factors that affect performance of secretaries in the Federal Polytechnic KauraNamoda

1.7    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

    The research is to identify the importance of office environment, know the effect of environmental condition in the life of working secretary, and also to fulfill the following:

⦁    To serve as a criteria or form of reference to secretaries in an organization

⦁    To aid students who may wish to conduct research on project that relates to this topic.

1.8    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY

    The Federal Polytechnic, KauraNamoda, Zamfara State was formulated, established by the then Executive President of Nigeria AlhajiShehuShagari in June 1983 vide a decree no 33 of 25 July 1979 as amended in 1985 with others.  The Polytechnic is situated in KauraNamoda Local Government that covers an area of 4.98 square kilometers and has a population of 370,367 according to 1991 Population Census figures, among the pioneer local government that was created in 1967.  The objective of the polytechnic is specified in the decree as follows; to provide full time or part time courses as instruction and training in:

1.    Technology; applied science, commerce and management

2.    And in such other fields or approved learning relevant to the need of the development in Nigeria in the areas of individual and agricultural production and distribution.

3.    And for research on the development of adaptation which may from time to time be determined.

4.    To arrange conference, seminars and the study group relevant to the field of learning.

The polytechnic has two campuses know as “ACADA” which is situated at the northwest of the town, while the “MAIN CAMPUS” is situated along Shinkafi Road, some three kilometers away from the town campus, the polytechnic currently has five schools and these schools are headed by directors.

To perform such other function as opinion of the Council may serve to promote the objective of the polytechnic.  The Rector was in charge of the polytechnic.  The first Rector of the Federal Polytechnic KauraNamoda was in person of AlhajiJa’afar B. Ango (1983 – 1991) Engr. Lugard A. Ahmed is the present Acting Rector of the Polytechnic.  The Federal Polytechnic KauraNamoda comprises of five school namely:

1.    The School of Science and Technology comprises of the department of Science Laboratory Technology, Catering and Hotel Management Food Science Technology, Maths and Statistics and Computer Science.

2.    School of Environmental Studies comprises of Architectural Technology, Quantity Survey and department of Building Technology

3.    School of Business and Management Studies it has department of Business Studies, Office Technology and Management, Accountancy, Banking and Finance, Marketing and Public Administration.

4.    School of Engineering Technology; comprises of Electrical/Electronic Technology, Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Technology.

5.    School of General Studies; comprises of department of Pre-ND BAM, Science and OTM.

The Polytechnic also runs a Consultancy Unit which is headed by a director and it runs part-times programmes such as certificate courses in Public Account and Audit, Public Administration, Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Computer Science and OTM, while the diploma course in Public Administration, Public Account and Audit, Computer Studies and Islamic Studies respectively.

1.9    DEFINITION OF TERMS

-    Environment:  refers to the physical condition in the working place of a secretary

-    Secretary:  is an secretary  in the office working as the personal assistant to an executive, dealing with letters, filling, typing and making appointments and arrangement

-    Condition:  refers to present state of health or being physically which may either be good or poor, excellent or perfect.

-    Organization:  organizing a group of people for business purposes.

-    Equipment:  refers to the things needed in the office to enhance the work of a secretary.

-    Furniture:  refers to the thing in the office like table, chairs, wall clock etc.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    INTRODUCTION

    In this chapter the researcher will summarize the discussion made in the previous chapters, draw a conclusion and make necessary recommendations where applicable for effective and efficient solution to the effect of office environment on secretaries’ productivity.

5.2    SUMMARY

    In chapter one of this research, environmental definition and type of environment were given, the aims and objectives of the study was also highlighted, population, sample and historical background of the case study that is the federal polytechnic KauraNamoda was also included.

    In chapter two, the literature review was clearly written with emphasis on the problems based on the views and opinions of other people and authors.

    Chapter three consists of the procedure used for data collection like questionnaire that constituted the method adopted in the research work.

    Chapter four dealt with data analysis based on questionnaire while chapter five rounds up the whole project with summary, conclusion and recommendations.

5.3    CONCLUSION

    In view of the problems highlighted and the investigation carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

    It was discovered that poor power supply hinders secretary’s productivity in an office.  This is obviously true because without power supply in an organization, many machines can notused and as a result many office works will remain pending.  Most of the office jobs need obsolete concentration and privacy, but in order to achieve expected goals any unwanted noise from outside should prevent from coming into the office.

    If an office is not kept clean and tidy, it become unpleasant to work to and may affect the health of the workers which in turn brings about low performance, therefore, there is need for cleaners to be provided with adequate equipment.

    The problems are to ensure an airflow which causes draught.  An adequate of fresh air is essential, as stagnant stable air induces drowsiness in secretary with a consequent lowering of the quality and quantity of work produced.

5.4    RECOMMENDATIONS

    Having stated the summary of the findings, and conclusion, I put forward the following recommendations

1.    Office environment should be located such that will be free from noise; it should be away from factories which are usually very noisy.  The management should see to it the above is adhered to when planning the office in order to enhance productivity

2.    Noise can be reduced using the general adoption method were ceiling and walls are treated with sound absorbent, the floors well carpeted or other sound absorbent floor covering used.  Other sources of noise such as major roads, sounds baffles fitted inside windows to check external noise could be considered by citing the office from these sources of noise.

3.    Enough toilet facilities should be constructed so as to assist the workers if they want to ease themselves from entering into bushes, which can cause serious problems to the workers’ health.

4.    First aid box should be install in every office in case of emergency.

5.    Management of the polytechnic should employed more cleaners and provided them with working tools, so as to keep the offices the school environment very clean and tidy each and every blessing day.

.

EFFECT OF OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON SECRETARY'S PRODUCTIVITY



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