Introduction -

The civil service has always been the tool available to Nigerian government for the implementation of developmental goals and objectives. It is seen as a pivot for growth of Nigerian economy. It is responsible for the creation of an appropriate and conducive environment in which the economy can perform optimally and it is this catalytic role of the public service that propelled government all over the world to search continuously for better ways to deliver their services (Amoako, 2003).

Civil Service is the instrument which government uses to regulate and manage all aspects of the society. Thus, the condition of a society is largely determined by the public service. Besides, it is from this government bureaucracy that all the other institutions obtain various types of approval, license and permits which are critical to their existence and operation. Also, government allocations of resources pass through the bureaucracy to all other areas of the society directly and indirectly. Therefore, all other institutions perforce have to deal with the civil service at one point or the other in their existence and operations (Philips, 1990).

There have been several factors affecting the efficiency of the Nigeria civil service. Ajayi (1998) has noted the following: over staffing and the closely related poor remuneration of employees in public service as the key factors. Secondly, there are the issues of poor assessment of manpower needs and the use of wrong criteria to appraise staff performance. These two have led to poor recruitment procedures, inadequate training and ineffective supervision. There tends to be a lack of qualified technical support staff as opposed to the abundance of general staff. The failure to carry out periodic assessment of manpower needs of the various departments leads not only to uneconomic system of compensation but also to inadequate job description and poor physical working conditions.

There has also been considerable political interference in the process of personnel administration, leading to improper delegation of power, ineffective supervision and corruption. The resulting apathy has in turn led to unauthorized and unreasonable absenteeism, lateness, idleness and notably, poor workmanship all which have serious negative implication on the efficiency and productivity of the civil service. (Salisu, 2001).

The federal government initiated reforms aimed at repositioning the civil service for better efficiency and effectiveness. The reform of the public service therefore became the ultimate strategy for repositioning the service for the realization of their vision as part of a multi-sectorial approach to promoting good governance, ensuring sustainable democracy and accelerated transformation. Various policy initiative and legal instruments have been put in place for the effectuation of the multi-sectorial reforms of the present administration, as encapsulated in the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, the medium term development strategy document of the administration. Two of the core components of the strategy relate to public service reforms and anti-corruption reforms through the inculcation of a culture of transparency and accountability (Adegoroye, 2005).

In spite of the gradual and systematic reforms and restructuring since May 29, 1999, after decades of military rule, the civil service is still considered stagnant and inefficient, and the attempts made in the past by panels had little effects. One is bond to wonder why this is so. Many writers have raised series of questions on the effectiveness of these reforms on human resource management and improved service in the civil service. Thus, a major preoccupation of the on-going government reforms is to restore professionalism of the civil service and ensure effective service delivery. It is in the light of this that this paper tries to analyze civil service reforms and human resources development in Nigeria, a case study of Oyo State Civil Service Commission

1.2.      Statement of Problem

Successive governments in Nigeria have introduced reforms aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the civil service. Still, the service remains inefficient and incapable. It was observed that most of these reforms did not take adequate care of human development, poor implementation of the provisions of most of the reforms, political interference among others.

In spite of the gradual and systematic reforms and restructuring since May 29, 1999, after decades of military rule, the civil service is still considered stagnant and inefficient, and the attempts made in the past by panels had little effects. This therefore interest the researcher in making attempts in finding possible solution to the worrisome situation of the civil service in Nigeria.

1.3.      Objectives of the Study

            The broad objective of the study is to evaluate the linkage between  civil service reform and human resources development in Nigeria, while the specific objectives are to: i.      Examine the overall impact of administrative reforms on human resources development in the Nigeria civil service.

ii.         Evaluate the significance of reform in the whole civil service.

iii.       Analysis the challenges confronting civil service toward achieving development in Nigeria

iv.        Suggest possible recommendation towards the development of human resources and civil service reforms in Nigeria.                         

1.4       Significance of the Study

            It is rightly observed that any research work is very essential to its area of study and the society at large from its practical and theoretical aspect.

            Hence, this research work will be beneficial to the civil service most especially development handling results both at the federal and state levels as well as all commission in government parastatals. However, it will be useful to future researchers who may be interested in this kind of research work.

1.5       Scope of the Study

            This study examines the nexus between civil service reforms and human resources development with particular emphasis on civil service commission, Oyo State. The duration of the study is between 2013-2016.

1.6       Statement of the Hypothesis

Ho: There is no relationship between civil service reform and human resources development

       in Nigeria.

Hi: There is relationship between civil service reform and human resources development in


 Ho: Civil service reform plays no significant role on human resources development in


H1: Civil service reform plays significant role on human resources development in Nigeria.

Ho: The civil service reforms in Nigeria do not make adequate provisions towards human

     resources development in Nigeria.

H1: The civil service reforms in Nigeria make adequate provisions towards human resources

     development in Nigeria.

1.7       Limitations to the Study

These are the possible problems the Researcher may face in the course of conducting the research work which may include:

Financial constraint

Every good and successful research work requires sufficient finance. However, this research work may face the problem of finance as a result of the little financial resources at the disposal of the researcher.

Time constraint

The conduct of all activities relating to the research work is time consuming whereas the institution has specified limited time for the conduct of the research work and this may limit the scope of the research work.

Problem of data collection

Data collection may also pose threat to the research work. Every good research work requires reliable and sufficient data. However, people always feel reluctant to give out required information.

1.8.      Definition of Operational Terms


Reform is referred to as the change or amendment made a thing or organization. In the civil service, reform is the series of change or amendment made to the structure, administration and operation of the civil service aimed at improving the structure and performance of the civil service

Public Service

The term public service is broader and more inclusive. It refers to government parastatals, which are the operational arm of government ministries as well as the ministries, departments and agencies (MDA). The Public Service, in addition to the Civil Service, encompasses the Armed Forces, the Judiciary, the Police, Government Institutions, Parastatals; Government owned Companies and Statutory Agencies.

Civil service

Civil service usually refers to the functionaries of state who are appointed to their government jobs through non-elective process. These functionaries work in the main government Ministries and Extra-Ministerial Departments and are responsible for the formulation and implementation of government policy and programmes

Human Resources

Human resources otherwise referred to as employee is the body of men and women employed in an organization to handle a particular job or offer a service and he or she is being paid for the job or service rendered. The human resources is the body of people through the goal of an organization is accomplished

Human Resources Development

Human resource development is the process or programmes designed to equip or upgrade workers with up to date skills and knowledge towards handling their respective responsibilities in a better ways


A commission is a body or group of people officially constituted and tasked with the responsibility of carrying out a particular or specific function

1.9.      Historical Background of Oyo state Civil Service Commission

The Civil service commission is a government agency that is constituted by legislature to regulate the employment and working conditions of civil servants, oversee hiring and promotions, and promotes the value of the public service. It role is roughly synonymous to that of the human resources.

The civil service commission is independent from elected politicians. Civil service commission is an independent body established by government to deal with establishment or personnel matter in the public service.

Function of civil service commission

i.          Establish rules and regulation:- To adopt amend or repeal rule for the administration of the civil service system.

ii.         Investigations:- To make investigations either upon complaint or upon its own motion concerning any matter of aching the administration of the civil service system.

iii.       Appeals:- The civil service commission shall prepared or cause to be prepared on written statement of fact, findings and recommendations on every appeal and shall transmit a duplicate there of to the person involved, and to the personnel officer.

Oyo State, popularly referred to as the “Pace Setter” is one of the 36 States of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It came into existence with the breakup of the old Western State of Nigeria during the State creation exercise in 1976 and it originally included Osun State, which was split off in 1991. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers.

The Oyo State Service Commission is empowered by Law to provide equity in employment, promotion and improvement in service delivery necessary to actualize the vision of the civil service of the state. The charter refocused on the commitment of the commission’s staff towards operational efficiency and effectiveness in rendering quality service to the inhabitants of Oyo State.

Its core functions are as derived from the constitution and relevant statutory provisions include the following:-

-      Recruitment and selection for the civil service including parastatals.

-      Appointment promotion and acting appointment of civil servants.

-      Disciplinary control in the civil/public service.

-      Retirement and removal of civil/public officers.

-      Protection of pension benefit.

-      Issuance of service regulations.

-      Administration of staff performance appraisal system.

-      Promotion of good governance, ethics and integrity in the public service in accordance with the provisions of the public service Ethics and code of conduct.

-      Human resource audit in the public service including local authorities.

-      Administration of civil service examination and occupational tests.




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