This project work is aimed at examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The sample were homogenized and serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test tubes. The dilution were the cultured on different media, macconkey agar, and Nutrient agar, discrete bacteria colonies were observed and  each colony was gram stained, the bacteria isolation were staphylococcus aureus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, these micro organism isolated are pathogenic and are toxin when ingested in contamination food.


Title page                                    





Table of content            



Background of the study                            

Aim and objective                           

Significance of study                            


Scope of study                                

Limitation of study                            



Literature review.                               

Composition of rice and its requirement                

Source of contamination                        

Pathogenic bacterial organism that are responsible for contamination of Jollof rice                                    

Some micro organism responsible for Jollof rice spoilage       

Jollof  rice spoilage

Factors that influence microbiological activity of food        

Prevention of food pathogenic organisms    


Material and methods                            

Sample collection                            

Media used and sterilization method                    

Isolation methods n                           

The serial dilution technique                        

Plating  and incubation condition                    

Gram reaction    











The intention of food safely is to prevent food poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the who lesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing, until it is finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy  this  energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally (e.g  our fat  or carbohydrate) or it may come from an external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major component of life, ENERGY and the chemical  building blood of life, (Bor).

Energy is required for the various enzymatic reaction that require an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race or in their intestine as we digest our intest meal on to draw air into lungs for breathing all requires energy.

Food  also supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new macromolecules for repair of damage structure  or for new construction such as the manufacturing of off springs,. Apart from it vital function of substaing life, food is referred to as labours of pathogenic  organisms, if not prepared in a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some restinants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers.

Pathogenic organisms  exist in two major categories. INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION. Intoxication is a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a forniute that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a body where it is able to gain a foot . generally food pathogenic organism results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic organisms.

Food poisoning out breaks are of recognized by the sudden  on set of  illness with a shout period of    time among many individual who have eaten or drunk one or more food (Jollodf rice) in common. Single cases are difficult to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common cause of actuate illness, yet cases and difficult to identify vnlesssas in Botulision for example  

There are distant Symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks are generally under recognized and under-requited.   The number of bacterial present : food (jolloff rice) may be used to determined whether or not the food (jolloff rice ) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles and Reuters of continuations


Fig I

Some disease that are spread by bacteria that enters the body in food (jolloff rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jolloff rice ) can be contaminated by bacterial from four main sources.

*   The people present in the workplace and their clothing.     

⦁    other  food that is already contaminated.

⦁    Dirty kitchen or work premises

⦁    Insect and vermin.

Some time, harmful bacterial  pass directly from the source  of  high risk food, but usually they rely on other things to transfer them to food. These  things are called  vehicles. Ihekoronye A. I. And Ngoddy P.O (1979).

Indirect  contamination using an intermediate  vehicle is the most common e.g the movement  of bateria from the intestine of a food handler to food via their hands after using the toilet. Where contamination  is via for example a culting board, this is known is  cross contamination,  the path that bacteria use to more from the sources to the food is know is the Route.

The privation of pathogenic organism in food, in most cases of food poisoning chain of events takes place and if we are to reduce the incidence of illness, the chain must be broken.


There  are different ways of breaking the food poisoning chain.

*     Protecting food  (Jolloff rice) form contamination .

*    Preventing any bacteria present in food from multiply.

*    Destory those  bacteria that are present in the food. The problem of food sanitation.   

⦁    Inspecting all food and  washing fruit and vegetable before preparation.

⦁    Using good personal hygiene practice always.

⦁      Not coupling or sneezing over or around the food.

⦁    Keeping covered as much as possible in destroy those bacteria with in food (Jollof rice) An adequate cooking food ensuring that a minimum internal cooking temperature of 800c is reacted. The heating processing such as pasteurization sterilization or caming. A combination of a suitable temperature and sufficient time is always required to destroy bacteria. The time and temperature required depends on the particular organism (e.g spores of clostridium perfringen are much more  heat resistant than salmonella bacteria).

In food safety programmes the hazard analysis critical control point (HACC?), this is recommended that every food business adopt the HACCP approach to identify all potential hazards and control them before they result in problems.

In setting up a HACCP system will involve the following

⦁    Set up a HACCP team of those people who fully understand the product.

⦁    Draw up flow chart that define all stages in the preparation process, from raw materials though to consumption or sale.

⦁    Identify all potential hazards (eg physical chemical bacterial) e.t.c

⦁    Identify the citial point consider preventive measures and decide which are needed to eliminate or  reduce poetical hazard to acceptable levels.


This is to find out possible pathogenic organism found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and presidential hotel to examine and identify micro organism (bacteria) associated with  Jollof rice (food) sample collected from these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth.


The signifcance of the work is to enable us improve the hygiene of food (Jolloff rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food handling practice suitable light colour protection clothing to be worn and it, will also enable  us to be aware of various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through   food (Jollof rice). As result of this the prevention of contamination of food is to be adlered to, this can be achieved by:

⦁    keeping high risk food at temperature that inhibits the growth of bacterial (i.e our of the damager Zone.) food should be kept below 40c in a refigecated unit an about 700c in a suitable warming unit.

⦁    Ensuing  that during preparation food is in the danger zone for as short a time as possible high risk food must not be left sitting out at room temperature.

⦁    Using suitable preservation such as salt and sugar.

⦁    Using various packing method like gas flushing or vacuum packing.

1.    hypothesis

Ho    Presence of non- pathogenic organism in the Jollof rice served.

H1    Presence of pathogen organism in the Jollof rice served.


This project work is based on the identification examination of pathogenic bacterial organism associated with (Jollof rice) served in the following hotels, Top rink and presidential hotel all in Enugu town and the cavsatire organism include  staphylococcus auvious, salmonella, clostridia per fringers, Escherichia coli, the modern problem to food satiation


Examination and identification of pathogenic bacterial organism in top rank hotel and preidetial hotel all in Enugu town the food to be examined is only be limited to Jollof rice specifically.


Pathogenic organism to be studied is only restricted to bacterial organism and not viral protozoa, fungal organism


Pathogenic organism are organism that are referred to as specific health hazard associated with gas to intestinal distribute resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The  victim suffering from abdominal pain and diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which when untreated in time result to the does not result to death it had  led to unnecessary expenses in seeking medical advice. This has now made me be interested on how we can  improve on our food lygiene to avoid contamination.



With reference to the result obtained the number of organism were found to be more than 30cfu in 100 ml of serial deletion Jollof rice when the number is more than 30cfu, it indicate pathogeicity the study confirms the presence of pathogenic bacteria in an apparently Jollof rice. Rhodes et al reported that some microorganism which grow well in food may produce toxin which when ingested will case poison in the system. But for this work the number of staphylococcus  aureus were  not enough to cause disease or to be pathogenic because Lery et al  reported that staphylococcus food poison have always contained in excess of 500,00 staphylococcus  per gram.


The food to be sold to consumers should be properly prepared  with safe and portable water such water should be treated and inspected by medical officers who will certify such water for use. Also the food to be sold to consumers should be prepared in a clean environment devoid of refuse dust striking sink e.t.c the food should be sold in clean and well covered dishes washed trays in addition to this the handler should be very careful the way they handle food to be the customers. The government on its part should legislate on the minimal requirement for selting up a food out let like hotels it should strictly enforce the legislation so as to put a stop to the shanties that adorn the land scape.


The microorganism count of retail food could be vary alarming if not properly checked to ensure  no further proliferation of the organisms present in the various food. Thus to reduce the organism count in food the water used for the preparation, the environment and the untensil used should be relatively clean and inspected. If the microbial activities of the hotels in Enugu metropolis of the controlled in the preparation of food then the effects and ailments can be  minimized and the disease like typhoid cholera diarrhea and fever can be eliminated. And also the ingredients used in the hotels should be kept in cupboard from rate and other rodents people who suffer form disease that can easily be contaminated to food should not be allowed to be a participant of food production. Other physical material that are employed in food processing should always be kept clean before and after used to prevent them from  contaminating food during usage.






                    Gram –Negative rods.




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