IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF GARLIC ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.


IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF GARLIC ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

ABSTRACT

    Invitro determination of bacteriocidal effect of garlic extract on staphylococcus aureus causing skin and urinary tract infection (UTI) on some female patients were studied.  High vagina swab (HVS) samples were collected randomly from selected number of patients who had symptoms similar to that of Staphylococcusaureus activities.  The samples were inoculated on Macconkey agar and nutrient agar and incubated at 370c for 24-48 hrs.  Colonies that appeared pinkish in whitish creamy and yellowish on nutrient agar were gram stained and examined microscopically. Also, biochemical tests were carried out in order to characterize the organism present in each positive sample 80% of the samples examined were found to react positively to Staphylococcal infections. It’s prevalence is more among the age range of  18 – 30 years.  It is suggested that government should encourage public health education on the potency of the cheap and readily available antibacterial agent like garlic and it’s addition to daily dietary which will act as a prop drug especially to women to reduce the incidence of S. Aureus  that causes skin and urinary tract injection.  Garlic extract has been proved to be an excellent cure to the ailment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS               

Title page                               

Certification                               

Dedication                               

Abstract                               

Acknowledgement                       

Table of content                           

List of tables                               

List of figures   

CHAPTER ONE

1.    Introduction1.1    Aim and objectives

1.    Hypothesis

2.    Delimitation

3.    Statement of problemCHAPTER TWO

2.    LITERATURE REVIEWCHAPTER THREE

3.    Materials and method3.1    Bacteriological culture

1.    Sterilization

2.    Collection and transport of specimens

3.    Laboratory examination of H.V.S. Sample

4.    Biocehmical characterization of isolates catalase

5.    Procurement and extraction of garlic extract

6.    Serial dilution

7.    Disc preparation

8.    Impregnation of thegarlic extract into the paper disc.

1.    Sensitivity testing of garlic extractCHAPTER FOUR

4.    Result4.1    preliminary identification of bacteria isolate

1.    Biochemical test showing staphyloccoccus aureus

2.    Sensitivity testing using garlic extract and three antibiotics indicating their zone of inhibition.CHAPTER FIVE

5.    Discussion, conclusion and recommendations5.1    Discussion

1.    Conclusion

2.    Recommendation

LIST OF TABLES

                                PAGE

I    The level of bacteria according to age range            37

II.    Preliminary identification of bacteria isolate            38

III.    Biochemical test carried out to identify staphylococcus

Aureus                                39

IV    Sensitivity testing using garlic extract and three

antibiotics                                 40

V    Table for minimum inhibitory concentration            40

VI    Bacteriocidal evaluation of garlic extract            41

LIST OF FIGURES                    PAGES

I    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF ALLICIN            30

II    Flow chart of garlic extract                    30

III    Flow chart of serial dilution                    31

IV    Disc before incubation                        35

V    Disc after incubation                        36

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Allium satirum  commonly known as garlic is an odoriferous plant belonging to a family lilacease.  It is a small perennial herb with narrow flat leaves and surrounded by membranous patches, it is grown mostly in  Northern Nigeria. It is used primarily for seasoning or spice and also for its medicinal property.  The plant  contain a medicinal properly just like other plants such as aloes, Indian liquorices, alligator pepper etc which are also found useful, although the extend is not accurately recorded.  The medicinal property of garlic is due to its “sulphur” content which was believed to be responsible for it’s medicinal value.  Garlic as a medicinal plant has been widely used and found to be effective on number of serious infections.  Other plants like the ones mentioned earlier also have their medicinal properly, some which is as a result of the presence of ackloids, volatile oils, polyphenol and some related sulphur compound contained in them.  Similarly,  some are found to be used as  vermifuge, stimulating carminative toxic and also as condiments and for treatment of worm bites just like garlic.

    The diluted juice of the fresh bulb is used externally as a mild antiseptic and the finely chopped cloves added to food act as an effective vermifuge.  By the distillation of the bulb, a volatile oil consisting mainly of daily disulphide and allyl – prop disulphide is obtained.  It is used to diminish cough in chronic bronchitic.  Meanwhile, in this project work, we shall be working on garlic’s bacteriocidal effect on staphylococcus aureus. Garlic is one of the best known natural plant that provide sulphur.  Many of the sulphur containing compounds in garlic such as dietlyl – disulphide, propienyl methyl sulphide, allicin which stands as organic disulphide present in garlic inactivates the amino acid.  Cysteine and such reactions of the garlic disulphide present in garlic may inhibit protein synthesis in microorganism.  This reaction may have contributed to the bacteriocidal effect of garlic on bactenal cell.  Garlic also contain a glycoside, vitamin B,C and D and allisation I and II, the volatile sulphur  oil which form part of a vermifugal medicinal property.  An antibiotic substance “allicin” which appear to be more  bacteriostatic than bactericidal has been isolated from the cloves.  Barley (1950).  It has antibiotic effect on both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.  Example Salmonellatyphinurium,staphylococcusaureus,BacillusSpecies,EsherichaColi, etc. (Shelef, 1980).

    Staphycoccus aureus is a predominant causative agent of skin and urinary tract infection among men and women.  Therefore, urinary tract infection is referred to as infection affecting the urinary system comprising invasion of any of the tissues that make up the tract, extending from the renal cortex to the urethral meatus.  Kunin, (1979).  These  diseases include cystitis – inflammation of bladder, Urethiritis – information of the urethra.  Also, skin infection is referred to as infection affecting the skin.  The organisms are present on the whole skin or part of the skin surface including those in deeper parts of the skin such as the ducts of sebaceous and sweat gland follicles.

Staphylococcusaureus  is a gram positive bacteria, coagulase-positive and a   human pathogen which live as a commensal in the anterior nares of over half the normal population.  It may also colonize the skin.  It is the most common cause of acute pyogenic (pus-producing)) infection in man. It has a marked predilection for the skin and surface structures and causes boils, carbunches, pustules, styles, impetigo (often in association with streptococcus pyogenes), pemphigus neonatorum, and sticky eyes in babies.  Acute osteomyelitis in children and mastitis in lactating mothers.  It is the commonest cause of infection of wounds and bums.  Other staphylococcalspecies are coagulase-negative (Jackson, M.H. CRAWFORD, J.F, MORIS, G. and SMITH P.G. 1989)

1.    AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.    To assess the bacteriocidal property of garlic as alternative to synthetic antibiotics

2.    To know the concentration of garlic extract that will be effective on the pathogen.

3.    HYPOTHESIS

HO:-    Garlic extract has an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcusaureus isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI) among women.

HIL:-    Garlic extract does not have an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcusaureus  isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI)

HII:    High concentration of garlic extract is needed an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcusaureus UTI among women.

1.3    DELIMITATIONS

-    This project work will be limited on only  Staphylococcusaureus causing urinary tract infection among women

-    Due to time and financial factors, sample and materials collection were limited to Enugu metropolis.

-    It is also limited to only the efficacy of garlic extract and the concentration that yield the highest efficacy.

⦁    This work did not go further to determine the normal dose (potency) that will be taken in order to avoid adverse effect in hypersensitivity reactions.

1.4    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.    Garlic extract (drug) lose their efficacy after a period of time.

2.    Contamination of drug by opportunistic micro organisms during processing.

.

IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECT OF GARLIC ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.