DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SPIN DRYER
This work is aimed at designing and fabricating a spin dryer which can be used in drying spent grains after brewing. This will no doubt save considerable human labours and time wastage involved in conventional method of drying the spent grains by spreading on the ground. It also saves as a means of employments for our teaming population. This machine was designed after due consideration of its ease of production, maintenance and servicing.
Chapter one gives account of the introductory background of the project. Chapter two was the literature review of the project. Chapter three was the synthesis of solution under which different alternatives, comparison of alternatives and choice were discussed. In chapter four, effort was made to discuss the Analysis and Theory of design. The details of construction, Maintenance, Procedures and testing and evaluation were discussed, In chapter five. After the testing, it was found to perform effectively and efficiently. Chapter six became the home for Material evaluation, machine and labour cost analysis. Finally was chapter seven, where we based our discussion on the project, possible recommendations and conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE – Introduction
1. Identification of Needs
2. Purpose of Construction
3. Importance and Specification of the project
Chapter Two – Literature Review
1. History about the project
2. Introduction of the project
Chapter Three – Synthesis of Solution
1. Different Alternative
2. Comparison of Alternatives and Choice
Chapter Four – Theory of Design and Analysis
1. Theory of Design
2. Analysis of Design
Chapter Five – Construction/Maintenance Procedures
1. Material Selection
2. Production Processes –Workshop Operational Sequences
3. Machining of Components
4. Assembly Procedures
5. Testing and Evaluation
6. Material Costing Analysis
7. Machine Cost Analysis
8. Labour Cost Analysis
1. IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS
Machine design is the creation of new and better machines and improving the existing ones. A new or better machine is one which is more economical in the overall cost of production, operation and maintenance.
It is on these background that we came out with a design of a machine, which shall help in solving problems of drying spent grains in our breweries.
The major problem facing breweries in the country in how to utilize the spent grains after brewing. Though some breweries use these spent grains as aids by drying and burning them. We hence see this method of recognition as not being economical but wasteful.
There propelled us to designing a new method of drying these spent grains to the required moisture content through the use of a SPIN DRYER. When these spent grains are properly dried, it could be a major constituent in the production of poultry feeds.
With this spin dryer, the unemployed masses could gain jobs by fabricating or buying this machine for drying of spent grains, and recycling it to a useful feed for poultry.
It is worthy to note that the production of a spin dryer is designed in a way that even the unskilled workers could operate it, in fact, we are designing this project as our quota towards the eradication of unemployment and poverty, which this present government is wedging war against.
Moreover, technology could be bought, borrowed or stolen. Our project is a borrowed technology from the western world, which was primarily used for drying of clothes, but we have expanded this scope to deal favourably with drying of spent grains to the desired moisture content.
1. THE PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTION
This project is designed and constructed to achieve the following goals:
1. To design and construct a spin dryer that will recycle brewery waste (spent grains).
2. To design and construct a machine that can dry rapidly trough spinning.
3. To design and construct a machine that will have high degree of automatization.
4. To design and construct a machine that will take less drying time.
5. To design a machine that will be easy in construction but have high efficiency.
6. To design and construct a machine that will be cheap to operate and maintain.
7. To design and construct a machine that will require less energy.
8. To design and construct a machine that could impress on existing design taking into cognisance, areas of need.
2. IMPORTANCE AND SPECIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
The importance attached to the design of the spin dryers is to achieve a fast spinning and drying system for drying of spent grains.
The machine is design in such a way that it does not require squeezing presses to demoisture the spent grains in the perforated spin tub/basket rather works on the theory of centrifugal motion where the spent grains are spin in the machine away from the centres of rotation at high velocity rate, squeezing the water out.
This machine is design to remove excess water from spent grains in minutes (it spin almost at a rate of 145orpm) by spinning twice the capacity of a normal dryer. It is designed to have a longer life span and efficient in its operation. It is driven by a 4kw (5h.p) motor, as the motor is spinning the basket, the moisture content is drain to the drum. The drum encloses the basket which is covered to prevent the moisture content from splashing. Also a mesh is also provided in the spinning tub to prevent escape of spent grains during spinning.
1. SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The spin dryer is design to complete with existing designs and improve on it, it is also design to be used in chemical industry, breweries for drying of products. It could also be used for small scale drying of spent grains for poultry feeds production.
Despite the scope covered by this machine, there are still some limitations encountered by this project.
These are as follows:
1. Unavailability of right/correct materials is one of the factors that hinder the machine from meeting up the standard spin dryer in western countries.
2. Another limitation, is the problem of cleaning the spin tub/basket, if holes become jammed by material, the drying effect decrease a lot, therefore continuous cleaning is always demanding.
3. It could not be used in drying drugs in pharmacy.
1. HISTORY ABOUT SPENT GRAINS DRYING
Drying of spent grains through dryers stunted about six decades ago. Different dryer types were used to dry the spent grains after brewing. The various types are:-
Steam-tube dryer, Direct-fired dryer, Flash-type dryer, Steam disk dryer.
Steam-tube dryers were the first type used to dry brewer’s spent grains. Direct-fired rotary drum dryers then appeared in early 1940’s and bean to capture a significant portion of the market because of their high through put capabilities. High volume flash-type dryers, also direct-fried were developed for use in the grain products industry. Subsequently, an innovative type of steam dryer emerged which utilized rotating steam-heated discs for the drying process. Spent grains will be considered as having been screw pressed to a moisture content of 65% and are to be dried to 9%..