The construction industry is that sector of national economy that is responsible for the development of both structures and infrastructures. It embraces “a wide range of loosely integrated organizations that collectively construct, alter and repair a wide range of different range of building and civil engineering structures” (Seeley, 1984).

Smith and Katzenback (1987) define work team (gang size) as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” Although work team effectiveness is complex a subject, optimum work teams have some common characteristics. Such characteristics include relatively small size, dedication standards, willingness to be collectively accountable, equitable and effective work and role assignment procedures within the team, and complementary skills. Optimum work teams also require compensation approaches that reward teamwork, such as gain sharing or team bonuses.

              Abiola (2004); Define productivity as a measure of how efficient and effective the resources, labour, capital, material, energy, water, information technology, etc. are used to produce the goods and services needed by the society.

According to Longman dictionary, output can be defined as “the amount of goods or work produced by a person, machine, and factory.”

             Management is getting results through workers’ output, as such, became the essential requirement in accomplishing the desired result. If a manager has more work to do than he can carry out personally, he gets it done by others (especially the hard labour).Productivity improvement is concerned with raising output and reducing costs and therefore the profitability of the construction industry. In many organizations improved utilization of man power assets is the key to the significance of short and long term productivity improvements. Improving productivity is part of the job of every line manager because of the direct link between productivity and profitability. Increasing use of people (increasing output and reducing cost) can only be achieved by optimum gang size, supervision and management. It is the responsibility of the top management to formulate company or industry policies for human errors in bid to improve managerial productivity, (Osoba, 1983,etal). In the pursuit of human errors reduction for productivity improvements there are certain factors to be considered because their influence can be readily modified and they include:

Inadequate workspace or poor work layout Poor environmental design. Inadequate method of material/equipment handling Inadequate job planning information and Poor supervision.

Ayagba and Ayandele (1999), stated that the total output of Nigerian construction workers is low. They identified various factors as having an influence on the total output of construction workers, citing Bain (1982) and Thomas (1991), who suggested the following factors.

Skills of the workforce Work practices Length of workday Time frame of the work process working conditions (lighting, cooling, heating and noise etc.)



The aim of this research work is to determine the optimum gang size of concrete work for effective use in construction site.


The aim of the research work is meant to be achieved through the following objectives

 To Identify and examine the required number of workers to carry out a specific trade (concrete) Identify and examine the time required to execute the concrete work To Identify the most influencing factor(s) in achieving workers output. To record and analyze the period of time with which workers spent in the process of execution of a concrete work on site.


Generally, construction industry is in dilemma with regard to the suitable number of people required to execute a specific trade. This is needed for the purpose of computing rates, so as to enable professionals (Quantity surveyors) in practice to  prepare accurate Bill of Quantities, among others.



The scope of this research study revolves around public and private buildings on construction sites within Kaduna state.


This study is limited to concrete work, data collection was limited to construction sites within and around zaria, and also the following limitations are detected after  the conduct of the research.

 The research is limited to specify the distance between the position of mixing and placement  It is Limited to distinguish whether the work is in substructure or superstructure.  There is no separation in output and time spent, between mixing, transportation and placement of concrete in the operation The research did not to consider the labourers  job overtime. The study did not consider the level of influences of difference in age group and experience on the worker’s output   (ie Hawthrone effect).



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