Parameters on which clear prints depends were comprehensively investigated.  The study revealed that clear print depends on the impressed pressure, the working temperature and the silver print paper.   Also studied were the manners of dependence of these parameters on prints impressed on sheets of varied thickness.  The result of this investigations were utilized in the design and construction of a operational hot (manual) printing machine.


Title page

Release page Letter of transmittal Approved page Acknowledgement Dedication Abstract Table of content


1.0     introduction

Identification of need Purpose of the Project Definition


Literature review


Specification of components

3.1     expectancy

Choice of material and methods Component parts


4.0     theory of design/design calculations

Heating system Mechanical system


5.0     sequence of operation


6.0     machine handling

Assembly Operation procedure Maintenance Repair


7.0     testing

Experimental determination of temperature time relationship Discussion/recommendation Mechanical efficiency Conclusion


Cost estimate

8.1     material cost analysis

Machine/labour cost analysis Summary of analysis




In recent years Nigeria lays strong emphasis on mass literacy and indigenous technology.  Printed matters are indispensable material in mass literacy campaign. The trend towards indigenous technology imposes a severe clamp down on imported engineering including printing machinery.  Thus, the situation is such that makes the acquisition of printing machinery from outside our own borders extremely difficult. To lessen the economic strain on the mass literacy campaign, the production of local printing machinery I s apparently imperative.  It is this fact that rendered initiative to the conception and realization of this low cost but efficient printing machine based entirely on local technology and resources. This machine is very useful in the printing of many items like paperbacks, cards, leatherbacks etc.  Its design is expected to motivate and advance the design and construction of other machines destined for similar purposes and based on indigenous technology and resources.

1.2       PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT Civilization and complexity of modern society has brought a number of social problems to be traced. The use of textbooks, printed materials such as success cards and posters has now become imperative for the overall dissemination of heart felt  feelings and messages to friends both near and far. Unfortunately, the prevailing economic pr oblem in the country (Nigeria) have sky rocketed the prices of these items.  Renders for example now rely solely on the libraries for up dating their knowledge. It becomes clear then, the need to equip the libraries to met up with the challenges of their services. Apart from refurbishing damaged books libraries are expected to render services such as printing of cards, printing and binding of students write ups like thesis, project etc. All this needs formed the basis for the construction of this machine because these functions cannot be performed without a printing machine.

1.3       DEFINITIONS TYPES            -           These are the characters or alphabets that form the letters PRINT            -           This is the mark or impression produced on pa per due to the types SILVER SHEET DEPOSITS     -           This is a thin rectangular cellophane sheet coated with silver compounds.



This science of printing is an old  technology but it application s tarted with the work of J. Gothenburg who invented “movable types” and “type metal” in the 15th century. With these types, it became possible for the first time to assemble letters into words, words into lines and lines into pages and to ink and print the pages.  Therefore, when wiped clean of ink, the pages, line and ward could be disassembled and the types returned to their respective compartments in the type cases, ready to be used again for another job.  With the invention of printing, it became possible to produce identical copies, a s many as the patience and energy of the printer and the extent of his technical facilities might permit.  This in turn made it possible to put more information into the hands of more people in less time and at lower cost, thereby helping to spread literacy and learning more widely and rapidly than had ever been possible before then. Although printing technology has advanced a great extent, the hot printing machine is our concern.  Though the Gothenburg machine uses ink to print the types.  This hot printing machine makes use of heat and silver or gold sheet depositor, which produces cleaner and neater print.  Heat is generated through a source to heat up the types to a desired temperature before printing.  This gives clean sharp prints irrespective of the paper thickness. On the w hole, a thorough and in depth study of the nature and properties of materials to be used for the different component of the machine aided us in the construction of the heating unit of a machine.  The heating unit forms the bulk of the functional unit of the machine as it determines the efficiency and performance of the machine.




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