THE EFFECT OF WORK LIFE BALANCE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA


THE EFFECT OF WORK LIFE BALANCE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

History of work-life programs can be traced back to 1930s, when introduction of reduced working hours with four shifts of six-hours instead of the usual three daily eight hours shifts in

W.K. Kellog Company resulted to enhanced employee morale and productivity (Lockwood, 2003). Still, it took the next decades (1980s) for the concept to gain importance with the consideration of certain aspects as job satisfaction, reward systems, physical work environment, worker participation, rights and esteem needs.

Most of them, particularly textiles, cement, bakery, leather, paper manufacturing and many others are all producing with machinery that were procured in the 1960s and 1970s, giving rise to frequent breakdown and reduction in capacity consumption rates (Anyanwu, 2007). Low technology is responsible for the inability of local industry to produce capital goods such as raw materials, spare parts and equipment, the bulk of which are imported.

Low Level of Capacity Utilization Rate: Capacity utilization rate in the manufacturing sector is between 30 and 40 per cent, indicating gross under-utilisation of resources. This has been liable largely on recurrent power outages, lack of funds to procure inputs, fallen demand for manufactures and frequent strikes and lockouts by workers and their employers.

Low savings: Lack of funds has made it hard for firms to make investments in modern machines, information technology and human resources development which are critical in reducing production costs, raising productivity and improving competitiveness. In addition, banks perceive manufacturing as a high risk venture in the Nigerian environment, hence they prefer to lend to low-risk ventures, such as commerce, in which the returns are also very high (Anyanwu, 2007).

High Price of Production: Giving that the introduction of SAP, high and growing cost of production has been recorded by most business organisations as a major limitation on their operations (CBN Business Surveys, 2010). Increased cost, traced mostly to poor performing infrastructural amenities, high interest and exchange rates and diseconomies of scale, has

resulted into increased unit price of manufactures, low effective demand for goods, liquidity squeeze and fallen capacity utilization rates.

Inflation: This can be described as constant increase in the general price level constitutes a discouragement to saving for future use and thereby retards investments and growth. It also encourages speculative activities and diverts resources from productive ventures.

Poor Performing Infrastructure: Poor performance of infrastructural facilities, characterized by frequent disruption in electric power and water supplies and incompetent telecommunication and transportation systems, is a major constraint on productivity. As firms have to invest huge capital to provide alternative infrastructural facilities to run their businesses, enterprises are forced to carry high cost structure which reduces efficiency and results in loss of competitiveness for their products (Anyanwu, 2007).

The individuals who form the human capital of an organization are an integral part of the family in particular and the society in general, and these two parts may be difficult to separate. In today‘s business world, employee performance is a key determinant in the achievement of organizational goals. As a result, organizations look for different and modern ways of motivating their employees, in order for them to give their best to the organization. One of these ways is recognizing that the heart is as good an asset, as the head of the employee.

Since home is where the heart is, organizations, especially in the developed economies, are beginning to realize that employee welfare transcends the work environment and extends to the homes and families of employees (Azeem and Akhtar, 2014). Such sayings as east, west, north and south, home is the best; charity begins at home; and even Igbo sayings such as ―ana e si n’ulo ama mma puta iro” . emphasize the influence of the family and home on the work-life of the employee. Also, studies indicate that when workers come from happy homes, the work environment tends to be conflict free (Kotter, 2001; Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeanx and Brindley, 2005).

However, discovering an appropriate balance between work and life is a challenge for both employer and employees in an organization. Work-Life Balance (WLB) is a very important phenomenon that is of great concern to various employees in both private and public sectors (Orogbu, Onyeizugbe and Chukwuemeke, 2015). It goes beyond prioritizing the work role and one‘s personal life; and also affects the social, psychological, economic and mental wellbeing of the individual.

The term gained importance in the late 1960s due to concerns about the effects of work on the general wellbeing of employees (Maurya, Singh, Reddy, Singh, Maurya and Arora, 2015) Karatepe & Tekinkus, 2006 reveal that employers‘ concern was on work design and working conditions improvement until the mid-1970s. In this period, study on working mothers and dual earner families came into light as women‘s contribution grew significantly in the workforce (Lewis, Gambles &Rappaport, 2007).

Rappaport and Bailyn (1996) studied how in the agrarian societies, work and family were closer to each other and how the industrial revolution in the 18th and the 19th century created a divide between work and personal life, and further how electricity and machines made mass production possible which essentially meant setting up of factories away from home. Their research studied segmentation of work and family life due to movement of work away from home/family to the factories and cities. Also, their study covered a limited scope of work-life balance as it was primarily concerned with work and its impact on family and did not relate work to its impact on other aspects of life.

Still, theirs was a significant beginning and more research followed soon as prior to then, ‗work‘ and ‗family‘ were primarily treated as separate segments (Blunsdon, Blyton, Reed and Dastmalchian, 2006). Interdependence of ‗work‘ and ‗family‘ was highlighted by Kanter (1977) who decked aspects of work affecting family life and aspects of family life touching work.

During the same time, Pleck (1977) analyzed work-family role system as a compilation of male work role, female work role, male family role and female family role. He further stated that

women knowledge spill-over from family role into work role and men experience spill-over from work role into family role. Much of this development is alluded to changing demographic makeup of the workforce, changing social roles, the changing responsibilities of organizations and legislative pressure. This is illustrated by the increasing number of women in the workforce wishing to combine family and work responsibilities.

An ageing workforce became another demographic factor which raised the importance of the work-life balance discourse for older employees who may wish to remain at work, but work less hours or different change patterns. Maurya et al (2015) argue that the most popular reason employers introduce work-life balance policies were recruitment and retention.

Despite the increased interest in developing WLB policies, a survey by Strathmore Business School (2011) on WLB in Kenyan organizations shows that 41% of managers felt that the value of working life had got poorer over the years. The review concluded that most companies in many countries like Kenya, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan lack human resource policy that supports the well-being of their employees. Corroborating this position using India as an example, Maurya et al (2015) avers that most major nationalized banks in India have their busiest branches in the metro and considerably bigger cities which implies that employees work longer hours under pressure because of huge number of customers; and experience more complex and intensified work.

The study found that employees were experiencing nervousness, workload, loss of control, pressure, long hours and inadequate personal time. This has been blamed on the competition for market leadership in the manufacturing sector (Karatepe and Tekinkus, 2006) which compel line managers to give their workers unnecessary work load in order to meet up with set targets. Employees try their best to be retained in the organization by putting in more time at work which may be at the detriment of their personal life.

All these may affect the nurture of children, lead to broken and unhappy homes and poor social life (Azeem, et al, 2014). This is peculiar to developing economies like Nigeria, faced with serious economic challenges and labour market pressures added to poor social infrastructures,

poverty, high joblessness and dishonesty. These conditions further worsen the work and life of the common Nigerian worker whose aim is to make a living and who may have to laboriously build up accommodating arrangements and cognitive mental coping behaviours that stimulate desirable satisfaction and effectual functioning both at work and at home (Fapohunda, 2014).

Epie (2011) states that the Nigerian manufacturing industry is known for its long hour culture, and high work load of employees. NASCO group, Zuma Paint and Chemicals, and Tito Yoghurt Limited may not be exempted from this culture. They are accountable to issues of work-life balance, due to the nature of the work environment and the competitiveness of the market. Policies exist to improve work-life balance, but its implementation has become an issue that needs to be looked into.

The Nigerian economy is in a state of recession and organizations are experiencing incremental production costs while facing the challenge of maintaining output and value point. It is more difficult to import production components and raw materials given the dwindling value of the Naira in addition to high and frequent expenditure on alternative power supply. All these have led to managers having higher expectation of employees‘ contribution to organizational performance at the cost of their personal life.

The proposition is that work-life balance incentives like, leave entitlement, flexi time, and family and welfare policies, are not adhered to organizational management which are also increasingly under pressure to deliver. These entail that employees work round the clock with little attention to themselves and their families. Clarke, Koch and Hill (2004) allude that such a situation may result to broken homes and poor parental upbringing with subsequent societal implications. This multifaceted demand between work and home responsibilities have assumed increased relevance for employees in the Nigerian manufacturing industry in recent years.

This is amidst the difficulties they face in prioritizing between work roles and personal lives. Hence, the study of work-life balance and organizational performance is essential. Organizational performance highlights achievements influenced by its operational activities in utilizing the resources owned (Helfert in Rivai, 2007). Nigerian governments (past and present)

have always acknowledged the performance issues of its manufacturing industry. In addition, the performance issues of the Nigerian manufacturing industry is not without precedence in literature. Olugbemi (1987), Phillip (1988) and Olusanya (1997) all find a middle ground in the argument that the manufacturing sector is characterized by low efficiency in relation to universal best standards. They suggest that most Nigerians usually prefer foreign made goods to locally produced ones ranging from rice to cars and the situation is made worrisome considering that Nigeria still imports ordinary toothpick and wooden ruler from other countries. Manufacturing remains one of the most powerful engines for economic growth.

It acts as a means to change the economic structure of countries, from simple, slow-growing and low-value actions to more productive activities that enjoy greater limits, are driven by technology, and have higher growth prospects. But its potential benefits are even greater today. Nigeria‘s developed manufacturing has suffered from neglect, since the country‘s economy has depended on the petroleum sector since the 1970s. As the government tries to expand the economy, it is working to reinvigorate the manufacturing sector so as to increase its contribution to Nigeria‘s prosperity.

Lagos and its surroundings are home to about 60% of Nigeria‘s industrial base (Bureau of Public Enterprise, 2006). Other key industrial centres are Kano, Ibadan and Kaduna. Nigeria‘s most significant manufacturing industries include cement, food processing, textiles and detergents. Manufacturing contributed about 4.2% GDP in 2009, up from 3.6% in 2008. The sector‘s contribution to GDP has changed little over the course of the decade.

Even as industries like cement and beverages draw venture from home and abroad, other industries are closing up shop; between 2000 and 2010, more than 850 manufacturing companies either shut down or temporarily halted production. Capacity utilization in manufacturing is around 53%. Imports of manufactured goods dwarf sales of homegrown products – manufactured goods have constituted the biggest category of imports since the 1980s. Billion fund to help banks extend credit to the manufacturing sector, following the decline in available financing after the onset of the global economic crisis. The biggest problem facing manufacturers over the past decade has been inadequate infrastructure in general and lack of

power supply in particular (BPE, 2006). The country set the aim of generating 6,000 MW of electricity by the end of 2009, but expected national demand is 25,000 MW. Yet, that target was not met as manufacturers have mainly installed their own generators to compensate for spotty supply from the state.

The manufacturing industry as a whole generates around 72% of its own energy needs (Elbadawi and Mwega, 2000). Operating these generators greatly increases the cost of manufacturing goods, and the cost increase is passed on to the consumer, making it difficult for Nigerian goods to contend with cheaper imports. Anyanwu (2007) recounts that high organizational performance in the Nigerian manufacturing sector has been constrained by many factors which include the following: Low Level of knowledge: This is conceivably the greatest barrier constraining performance in Nigeria as developments in knowledge and innovations are the primary forces propelling industralisation today (Anyanwu, 2007). Unfortunately, industries in Nigeria cannot acquire modern machines that have reduced processes.

These are the issues that prompted an investigation into the effect of work-life balance on organizational performance in selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The essence is that the majority of research on the correlation between work and family life refers to WLB and organisation policies, WLB and organisation culture, WLB and HR management, WLB and work commitment, WLB and job satisfaction, WLB and gender equality, WLB and family life, and many more (Casper, Eby, Bordeaux, Lockwood and Lambert, 2007). There are a number of studies exploratory WLB and workers wellbeing too.

These studies however were mainly conducted in the United States (Grzywacz and Marks, 2000), the United Kingdom (Wise, Bond and Meikle, 2003), Australia and New Zealand (Bochner, 2003). This leaves a significant gap with respect to effect of WLB on organizational performance with special emphasis on the manufacturing industry of a developing economy like Nigeria.

Statement of the Problem

There is a growing interest in the importance and ramifications of WLB among organization experts. This growing interest may be attributable to the current shift from public sector to that of private sector driven economy. Consequently, organizational development expert‘s focus is on issues that enhance the compettivenees of growth sectors like manufacturing industry.

Most organizations in the manufacturing industry have been bedeviled by various challenges that border on WLB issues. Due to high cost of doing business arising from shortage of manufacturing inputs due to inflation and foreign exchange procurement issues, most manufacturing firms have trimmed down (downsized) their staff strength. The effect is long hours of work for the same pay for those still in service, high performance targets, reduced incentives and delayed or denied promotion The immediate to long term consequences of these are burnout, frequent ill-health and generally, work dissatisfaction. Several employees react differently to these. Some play truancy and absenteeism, others resort to cutting corners and indulge in fraudulent practices and worse still, others leave the organization entirely. All these impact negatively on the objectives of the organizations and on the WLB of the employees.

There have been a considerable number of studies on WLB among developed countries (United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand) on almost all aspects of WLB.

The same however, cannot be said of the developing economies. In Nigeria, the interest in WLB is growing but most of the earlier studies were on the banking industry which is largely owned by Nigerians of southern origin. Again most, studies seem to focus on the female workforce, individuals with children or single-parent families, rather than on all employees. Consequently, there is little research efforts on WLB for all employees in the manufacturing sector of the North Central Zone of Nigeria. It is this gap that this study intends to fill.

Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to determine the effect of work-life balance on organizational performance of the Nigerian manufacturing firms. The specific objectives of the study are to:

i. Determine the effects of leave policy on employee turnover in the Nigerian manufacturing firms.

ii. Ascertain the relationship between flexible scheduling and effective service delivery in the manufacturing firms.

iii. Highlight the effect of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment in the manufacturing firms.

iv. Assess the relationship between workplace support system and willingness to work longer hours in the Nigerian manufacturing firms.

v. Identify the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigerian manufacturing firms.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the investigation:

i. To what extent does leave policy affect employee turnover in the Nigerian manufacturing firm?

ii. What is the relationship existing between flexible scheduling and efficient service delivery in the Nigerian manufacturing firm?

iii. What is the effect of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment in the Nigerian manufacturing firm?

iv. What is the relationship existing between workplace support system and job pleasure in the Nigerian manufacturing firm?

v. What are the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigerian manufacturing firm?

Hypotheses Formulation

The research hypotheses were formulated as follows:

i. Leave policies significantly affect employee turnover decisions.

ii. There is significant relationship between flexible scheduling and efficient service delivery in the manufacturing firm.

iii. Emotional intelligence significantly affects staff commitment in the manufacturing firm.

iv. Workplace support significantly influences staff willingness to work longer hours

v. Organizational culture and poor  communication processes are  the key challenges to effective work-life balance programme in the Nigerian manufacturing firm.

Significance of the Study

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. It is significant theoretically because its findings serve to enrich literature in this area of research interest. It is empirically significant to scholars in the sense that it will generate original and indigenous data on the effect of WLB on managerial performance in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria.

Practically, the findings provide an objective outlook to the Manufacturing Association of Nigeria (MAN) on the relationship between WLB and organizational presentation in the Nigerian manufacturing industry.

The findings and recommendations of this study will help the firms and other manufacturing firms in Nigeria to map out strategies of dealing with WLB issues within their organizations. The study is equally beneficial to future researchers who will find it a relevant research material for their study.

It serves as a reference material for students on similar topics by providing them with empirical insight into the effect of work-life balance on organizational performance in the Nigerian manufacturing firm.

Scope of the Study

The study focused mostly on the aspects of WLB that is yet to receive much literature attention in the Zone such as leave policies and practices, work scheduling, emotional intelligence and workplace support. The area of the study is delimited to the North Central Zone where there is a dearth of studies on WLB in the manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study was restricted to Plateau, Abuja and Benue states respectively because it is where the head offices of the selected companies are located Using the appropriate fully explained in chapter three the following firms were selected for this study: NASCO group, Zuma Paint and Chemicals, Queensway Aluminum, Lucky Fibres Limited, UAC Foods,  I-Tex Furniture Limited, Sarplast Fiberglass Company,

Dangote Cement Plc and Tito Yoghurt Limited all located in the North Central zone of Nigeria. The researcher chose these companies because they represent significant sectors of the Nigerian manufacturing industry. Secondly, they are world class companies whicho are expected to observe global best practices in their operations.

The time scope covers a period of 17 years (1999 to 2015), representing the situation as it stands since inception of this democratic period.

Limitations of the Study

Attitude of the Respondents: There is the expected typical reluctant attitude on the part of some respondents to fill the questionnaire or grant interview. In some cases, some respondents expect to be paid for the use of their time and knowledge; if otherwise, they were very reluctant in giving the required information. Some hoard information in keeping with the oath of secrecy. In spite of repeated assurance of confidentiality most of them fear the loss of their job.

Operational Definition of Terms

This section presents the operational definition of key words used in the study as follows: Work-Life Balance: This concept is used in this study to mean  proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation) in such a way that the employee maintains a healthy equilibrium between the two.

Flexible Scheduling: Flexible scheduling is affording employees the flexibility of choosing how long, where and when to work.

Workplace Support: This is the degree to which employees believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their wellbeing and fulfils their socioemotional needs. Workplace support includes things like, providing catering services in-situ, children day care services, health cilinic within the office premises, etc.

Profile of the Companies under Study

NASCO Group

Nasco Group Nigeria Limited manufactures and markets consumer products. The company offers detergents and soaps, biscuits, cornflakes, carpets and blankets, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, and packaging materials. Nasco Group Nigeria Limited, formerly known as Northern Nigeria Fibre Products Ltd., was founded in 1963 and is based in Jos, Nigeria.

Source: www.nascogrp,,.com (2016)

Zuma Paints and Chemicals Nigeria Ltd

Zuma Paint and Chemical Ltd. is engaged in the manufacturing and supply of paint products. Zuma Paint marine and protective coatings give protection to all types of structures ranging from steel, non-ferrous metals, concrete and other masonry substrates.

Source: http//www.zumapaints,,.com.ng (2016)

Tito Yoghurt Company Limited

Tito Yoghurt Company Limited is located in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The company is mainly into Beverages, Dairy Products, Drinks and offering Yoghurt.

Source: Bllomber.com/titoyorgurtnig (2016)

Dangote Cement Company Plc Gboko Plant

Dangote Cement Company Plc Gboko Plant started as Benue Cement Company (BCC) Gboko and was integrated as a limited liability company in 1975 with an installed production capacity of 900,000 metric tonnes of cement per annum. In 1990, the company was privatized and also underwent a capital restructuring and became known as Benue Cement Company Plc.

It was consequently incorporated as Public Liability Company (PLC) in 1992. According to the Annual Report and Accounts (2009:2), Dangote Industries Limited became core investor in the government of Nigeria‘s 65% majority equity in the company and effectively took over in January, 2004 and changed the name to Dangote Cement Company Gboko. The company has continued to expand and is quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange Market and has a staff strength of 730 direct employees made up of 703 operatives and 27 management staff. From an

initial installed capacity of 900,000 metric tonnes, the company has expanded its production capacity to 4.0 million metric tonnes per annum.

The company has faced several challenges; some industry-based while some are company- specific. For instance, the company faces scarcity and persistent increase in the prices of petroleum products particularly fuel oil, un-coordinated tax administration, unstable financial policy measures, increased insecurity to lives and assets among others. The public affairs Manager of the Company, Chiegina (2012) in an interview on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) enumerated some of the challenges of the company to include, persistent protest by host communities, forced leave for staff of the company in December 2012 due to cement glut from imported sources.

Therefore, the company suspended production. Makoju (2013) confirmed that, in Gboko factory, 890 Nigerians were affected by the shut down while 30 expatriates were also affected by the exercise. All these were direct employees. Indirect employees who were also affected by the closure included those selling cement within the plant environment, the casual workers, the contract staff, and drivers.

Source: www.dangotegroupplc.com (2016)

Nigeria Breweries Plc

Nigerian Breweries (NB Plc) is a subsidiary of the Dutch brewer, Heineken. The company is Nigeria‘s pioneer and largest brewer with current annual production capacity estimated at 10 mn hectolitres. Founded in 1946, NB operates 5 breweries in Nigeria. The first was commissioned in Lagos in 1949 and four others have consequently been established in Aba (1957), Kaduna (1963), Ibadan (1982) and Ama (2003), providing a geographical spread across the country, albeit bias for cities in the southern part of Nigeria.

NB along with Guinness Nigeria constitutes a formidable oligopoly in the Nigerian beer market, with an 80% combined market share. Over the years, NB has launched a series of alcoholic and non-alcoholic brands carefully crafted for the Nigerian end user these includes Star Lager Beer, the company‘s flagship product. Others include Gulder Larger Beer, Heineken (Larger), Maltina

(Malt drink in four variants - Maltina Classic, Maltina Strawberry, Maltina Exotic and Maltina with Pineapple) and Legend Extra Stout.

Listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in 1990, NB is one of the most capitalised and actively traded companies outside the banking and insurance sectors. As at December 2007, the company had 131,026 shareholders. Heineken N.V. of Holland has a majority shareholding of 54.1%. In its resolve to maintain leadership of the beer market, NB launched the local production of the Heineken brand, an International high quality premium beer, in 2004. This marked the highpoint of a two-year process to position Heineken, which was previously imported into the country, as a locally produced brand.

Currently, the company produces Heineken beer in its new state of the art brewery in Ama. In addition, NB recently introduced MALTINA SIP-IT, a variant of Maltina in a ‗Handy Pack‘. One of the latest additions to NB's product range is the new Gulder Max - a stronger, darker and higher gravity brewed variant of the regular Gulder with a 6.5% alcoholic content. The introduction of GulderMax was designed to strengthen the existing brands and to increase the beer options as obtained elsewhere in the world.

Despite its rapid growth in recent years, NB is noted for its efficient cost management, an effort that contributed to the liquidation of the company's huge debt profile in 2006 and won the company an award for the best cost saving company within the Heineken group.

Product Brands

Star beer has implicit the image and stature of a national icon. A beer associated with brightness, social fun, high quality taste and style - a world-class brand brewed by Nigerian Breweries Plc (NB Plc). Star was introduced into the Nigerian market in 1949 as the first indigenous beer brand. The beer market had hitherto been dominated exclusively by imported brands. Shortly after its entry into the market, the beer quickly overcame the problems of market acceptance. Star is largely responsible for the growth of the Nigerian indigenous beer industry. The popularity gave other prospective investors courage to consider the establishment of new breweries.

Gulder Lager Beer was introduced in 1970 and then re-launched in 1972. Gulder was introduced on a platform of uniqueness and distinction for the confident, socially active consumer driven by a desire for success. Gulder comes packaged in a unique brown 60cl bottle (at the time of launch, the only brown bottle in Nigeria) with 5.2% alcohol content. The beer is made from malted barley, hops and water with a characteristically bitter taste.

Gulder is available in many parts of West Africa, particularly Ghana, Republic of Benin and Togo. It is also exported to the United Kingdom. Maltina is Nigeria‘s premier malt drink is now available in four varieties (Maltina classic, Maltina strawberry, Maltina exotic andMaltina with pineapple) Amstel Malta is a non-alcholic malt beverage, meaning it is brewed from barley, hops, yeast, and water much like beer. Corn and caramel color may also be added. Legend Extra stout brand now re-launched in a brand new and fashionable packaging. The new Legend Extra Stout now comes with a new attractive body and neck Label.

For the first time in the brand‘s history, a back label has also been introduced. The back label provides detailed information about the product, such as ingredients, alcoholic contents etc. A unique, bottom-fermenting alcoholic beverage produced from sorghum malt, sorghum and maize and flavored with a natural stout aroma compound with 7.4% alcohol content. The company delivers its products through 147 key distributors and wholesalers (2006: 149).

NB does not own and is not liable for the logistics related to the distribution of its products. It key distributors are carefully selected to ensure that the company's products are available across Nigeria.

Aba Brewery: Established in 1957.

Enugu Brewery: Established in 1993 but discontinued in2004. AMA Brewery: Established in 2003.

Ama Brewery is the biggest brewery in Nigeria and the most modern in the world. Kaduna Brewery: Established in 1963

Ibadan Brewery: Established in 1982 Lagos Brewery: Established in 1949 Source: nigerianbreweriesreport.pdf (2016)

Sarplast Fiberglass Company

Sarplast Fiberglass Company, based in Suleja, Niger State, has a factory area of 40.000 m² of which 3.000 m² covered, has two discontinuous production lines from ND 150 to ND 2000. It has a production capacity of 6.000 tons/year and employs 80 workers. Sarplast Fiberglass, thanks to its qualifications and engineering skills, can supply its products both for the Oil and Gas and civil market in Nigeria, with the capacity of manufacturing fittings and spools prefabrication. Sarplast Fiberglass has its own laboratory, where it can perform quality tests on raw materials and finished products. The plant in Suleja is the first and only GRP pipe factory in Nigeria.

Source: http//www.sarplast,.com/eng/company-sarplastfiberglass.php

UAC Foods

UAC of Nigeria Plc (UAC) is a leading diversified company, operating in the food and beverages, real estate, paint and logistics sectors of the economy.

Source: www.uacnplc,,.com

iTex Furniture Limited

iTex  Furniture  Limited  (―iTex‖),  an  indigenous  furniture  making  company based  in  Abuja,  is tactically positioned to be one of the leading furniture makers in Nigeria with the opportunity to export NIGERIAN MADE goods to foreign countries. Over the last decade, itex has acquired an impeccable record of delivering products of international standard to local off-takers, most of whom have been the different arms of the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, and other corporate bodies.

Itex now finds it imperative to address the needs in the private sector, both local and foreign. Itex Furniture thus requests for a facility to create an expansion in its furniture production facility. The company has concluded arrangements with some European Furniture giants for technical support and to acquire contemporary machines from furniture machine manufacturers to improve technology to minimize waste of materials, time and human resources while increasing productivity; utilization of large and growing local raw material base of steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, in addition to plywood, chipboard and various hard and soft woods which complement

imported high quality upholstery fabrics like leather suede, and accessories like knobs and handles locks and lock-sets, rollers stands, legs, slides and tracks.

iTex Furniture Limited, was originally incorporated as itex Limited on the 11th of April 1996, but subsequently changed its name to reflect its core business as a furniture maker. Its operations in the recent past, has ensured its emergence as a leader in the competitive Nigerian furniture industry. Until recently, Abuja has been its primary market focus but has now been expanded to other towns as well as some neighbouring countries. The business model is structured along product design and manufacture geared towards total satisfaction of clients‘ requirements, satisfaction of comfort, ergonomics and aesthetic requirements etc.

iTex is affiliated with highly renowned international corporate bodies that have made their mark in the furnishing industry across the globe. It has developed a healthy working relationship with firms like Talin s.p.a. of Italy, Arrben snc. Of Italy, Torre s.p.a. of Italy, RDB SRL, Italy and Vitra International AG, Brirsfelden, Germany. This wide base of experience, production technology and product resource provides our alidity   ion with the ability to meet the demands of large scale furnishing jobs for large corporate bodies and organizations.

In addition to the domestic resources, when the need arises, the company uses the combined resources of our select affiliate companies in Europe in Planning, Designing and Production of appropriate office furniture and accessories with the following primary considerations:

Facilitation and enhancement of intra and inter departmental working relationships.

Selection of highly aesthetic, ergonomic and durable furniture to enhance and provide the right corporate identity of the client.

Considering and providing for the use of modern office electronic equipment and accessories in promoting productivity.

Flexibility and modularity in design to meet demand for the ever recurring need for changes in layout and use of certain office spaces.

iTex recipe for success is based on a futuristic approach to Total Quality Management in all facets of our organization and services. The firm has thus been harnessing every available resource at its disposal to provide personal and objective services with a high degree of quality and efficiency. Hence, all itex products are backed by a one year warranty.

Source: http//itexfurniture..com/our-story/

Queensway Aluminum

Queensway Aluminium Company Ltd provides services on aluminium fabrication and installation of windows and doors.

Source: http//www.finelib.,com/listing/Queensway-Aluminium/21631/

Lucky Fibres Plc

Lucky Fibres Plc is located in Central Business District, Central, Abuja. The company is mainly into manufacturing of carpets and rugs.

Source: http//www.vconnect.,com/lucky-fibres-plc-central-abuja_b241349

REFERENCES

Azeem, S.A. and Akhtar, N. (2014). The influence of work life balance and job satisfaction on organizational commitment of healthcare employees. International journal of Human Resource Studies, 4(2), 18-24.

Blunsdon, B., Blyton, P., Reed, K. and Dastmalchian, A. (2006). Introduction – Work, Life and the Work-Life Issue. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benardin, H. I and Rusell, J. E. (1998). Human resource management: an experimental approach. 2nd ed. Irwin: McGraw Hill

Clarke, M., Koch, L., and Hill, E. (2004). The work–family interface: Differentiating balance and fit. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33(2), 121- 140.

De Cieri, H., and Bardoel, E. A. (2009). What does ―work-life management‖ mean in China and Southeast Asia for MNCs? Community, Work and Family. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences Vol. 3 No. 4, 2015

Dissanaya. M and Hussain, A. (2013). Impact of work life balance on employees   performance an empirical study on seven apparel organization in Sri lanka. Proceedings of the third International Symposium

Fapohunda, T. M. (2014). An exploration of the effects of work life balance on productivity.

Journal of Human Resource Management and Labour Studies, 2(2) 71-89.

Golden, L. (2012). The effects of working time on productivity and firm performance. A

Research Synthesis Paper: International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Guest, D.   E.   (2002).   Human   resource   management:   When   research   confronts   theory.

International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(2), 22-38 .

Hudson Resourcing. (2005). The case for work/life balance: Closing the gap between policy and practice. Hudson Australia and New Zealand available on www.hudson.com

Hye, K. K. (2014). Work life balance and employee performance. The mediating role of affective commitment. Global Business Management Research: An International Journal, 6(1), 37-51.

Kanter, R.M. (1977). Work and family in the United States: A critical review and agenda for research and policy. New York: Russell Sage.

Karatepe O.M. and Tekinkus M. (2006). The effects of work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and intrinsic motivation on job outcomes of frontline employees: International Journal of Banking Marketing, Vol. 24(3), 2006, pp. 173-193.

Karatepe O. M. and Sokmen A. (2006). The effects of work role and family role variables on psychological and behavioral outcomes of frontline employees: Tourism Management, Vol. 27(2), 2006, pp. 255-268.

Kartzell, R. and Yanalorich, G. (2000). Work Productivity and Job Satisfaction. New York, university press New York

Kotter J.P. (2001). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review. USA

Lewis, S., Rapoport, R. and Gambles, R. (2007). The constraints of a work life balance approach: An international perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource, 18(3), 360 – 373.

Lasch, E. (1999). Achieving a Balance. Ohio Certified Public Accounts Journal, 58(1): 21- 22.

Laschinger, H, Fineganj and Shamain J. (2001). The impact of workplace empowerment and organizational trust on staff nurses work satisfaction and organization commitment. Health Care Management Review, 26, 7-23.

Lewis, S. Gambles, R. and Rapoport, R. (2007). The constraints of a ‗work–life balance‘ approach: an international perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(3), 360–373.

Lockwood, N.R. (2003). Work-Life Balance: Challenges and Solutions, SHRM Research Quarterly No 2. Society for Human Resource Management, USA.

Maurya V.N. and Kaushik A.P. (2013). On the job training: A step towards job satisfaction- A case study of public sector organization in Indian scenario. International Journal of Mathematical Modeling and Applied Computing, Academic and Scientific Publishing, New York, USA, Vol. 1(2), 2013, pp.

Maurya V.N., Reddy N., Maurya A.K., Arora D.K. and Datt N. (2014). Optimization perspectives and effectiveness of gender in organizational leadership: Scenario of employees satisfaction and organizational goals. IEC University Journal of Engineering, Management and Sciences, India, Vol. 1 (1).

Maurya V.N., Singh Bijay, Reddy N., Singh V.V., Maurya A.K., Arora D.K. (2014). Cost- effective perspective and scenario development on economic optimization for multiple- use dryseason water resource management. American Open Journal of Agricultural Research, Academic and Scientific Publishing, New York, USA, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014,

pp. 1- 21, ISSN:2333- 2131

Ojo, I. S., Falola, H. O and Mordi, C. (2014). Work life balance policies and practices: A case study of Nigerian female university students. European Journal of Business and Management 6 (12), 184-193

Ojo, I. S., Salau, O. P., and Falola, H. O. (2014). Work life balance practices in Nigeria a comparison of three sector journal on competitiveness. Journal of competiveness 6(2), 3- 14. DOI: 10.7441/joc.2014.02.01

Ojo, S. (2012). Work Life Balance Practices and Policies: Managers and Employees Experience in the Nigerian Banking Sector. Brunel Business School – Doctoral Symposium 27th and 28th March

Oludayo O, Gberevbie, D. E., and Popoola, D. (2015). A study of multiple work-life balance initiatives in banking industry in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics. 133,108-109.

Orogbu, L. O., Onyeizugbe, C. U. and Chukwuemeke, D. N. (2015). Work Life Balance and Employee Performance in Selected Commercial Banks in Lagos State. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics 2015; 4(2-1): 33-43

Pleck, J. H. (1977). The work-family role system. Social Problems, 24(4), 417-27.

Rappaport, R. and Bailyn, L. (1996). Relinking Life and Work: Toward a Better Future. New York: Ford Foundation.

Russell, H., O‘Connell, P.J. and McGinnity, F. (2009). The Impact of Flexible Working Arrangements on Work-life Conflict and Work Pressure in Ireland. Gender, Work and Organization, 16, 73-97.

Redmond, J., Valiulis, M. and Drew, E. (2006). Literature review of issues related to work- life balance, workplace culture and maternity/childcare issues. Crisis Pregnancy Agency: Summary Report of the Consultation for the Strategy to Address the Issue of Crisis Pregnancy. http//doi.crisispregnancy.,ie/pub/Rep3.pdf

Upadhaya, B, Munir, R and Blount, Y. (2014). Association between performance measurement systems and organizational effectiveness. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 34(7), 853-875.

Vishwa N. M., Chandra K., Jaggi, Bijay .S, Charanjeet .S., Avadhesh K. M., and Diwinder. K., (2015). Empirical analysis of work life balance policies and its impact on employee‘s job satisfaction and performance: Descriptive statistical approach. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics.4(2), 33-43.

Walter, J. and Walters, J. (2010). Positive management: Increasing employee productivity.

Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies

.

THE EFFECT OF WORK LIFE BALANCE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.