EXAMINATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SPEED OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION, COMMUNITY BONDING AND INTERNET USAGE FACTORS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT'S ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ACCOUNTING CONCEPT
Background to the Study:
Education is that which each generation gives to its younger ones, which makes them to develop attitudes, abilities, skills and other behaviours which are of positive value to the society in which they live (Fafunwa, 1974). Education today is a social service which provides human with multiple objectives in mind. The objectives vary from the acquisition of basic skills required for a more rapid growth of the economy and the basic knowledge for the individual to function effectively in the society. Amaele (2003) also describe education to mean the total development of the individual, through acceptable methods and techniques, according to his abilities and interests, as well as the needs of the society, to take his rightful place and contribute adequately to the advancement of his society. Fafunwa (1974) also defined Education has been all efforts, conscious and direct, incidental and indirect, made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of the individual’s own needs as well as the needs of the society where that education is based. Hofer (2000) stated that learning is a continual process and through this process of learning, students acquire and construct new knowledge. Acquisition of knowledge refers to the process of absorbing and storing new information in memory, the most important part is how well the information can later be remembered (retrieved from memory). Students’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the speeds of acquiring knowledge are important in students’ achievement in accounting concept.
Beliefs about the nature of learning and knowledge acquisition (epistemological beliefs) have continued to be an important aspect of educational research; this is because it helps to investigate students’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the relationship between these beliefs and their learning approaches. Cano (2005) opined that investigation on epistemological beliefs and its contribution to education particularly in identifying student’s knowledge, their abilities and the learning strategies they adopt has been long undertaken and had been a matter of interest to many researchers. This is because the factors that motivate students to learn and that ensure their success or failure to a considerable extent, depends on the learning approaches they adopt in the course of their study. The relationship between students’ belief and motivation to learn is related to their epistemological beliefs which play an important part in student’s knowledge acquisition, the reasoning process and their level of academic achievement. The importance of epistemological assumptions that underlie the process of knowing certain knowledge had also been acknowledged by Benson and Griffith (1991) who believe that knowledge should not be construed as one that is merely consisting of a set of skills.
Marton and Saljo (1976) identified the surface and deep approach with each having a distinct meaning with regards to understanding knowledge. The surface approach describes the intention to reproduce information in a manner that is unreflective of the knowledge learned, while the deep approach involves the intention to understand knowledge in depth. Epistemological beliefs are beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning. Schommer (1990) integrated epistemological dimensions and conceived them as a system of independent beliefs which means that there are multiple beliefs that compose one’s personal epistemology. One of the claims about this is that one’s epistemological belief may change over time. In spite of one believing that deep learning of knowledge is gradual, such student may also hold the belief that knowledge is best characterized as isolated bits and pieces. Perry (1968) influences others with his work on students’ views of education. His Interviews with university students lead Perry to conclude that college students go through a transformation in their views of the nature of knowledge. That student begins college thinking knowledge is simple, certain, and handed down by authority. By the time they reach graduation many students conclude that knowledge is complex, tentative, and reasoned out.
Bendixen and Haerle (2006) have proved that epistemological beliefs are both domain general and domain specific. Hence, the question that needs to be considered is what is the nature of epistemological beliefs at different levels of specificity? For instance, one can ask how epistemological beliefs at different levels of specificity relate to each other. How epistemological beliefs at different levels of specificity interact and ultimately affect other aspects of cognition and subsequently academic performance. Schommer (2005) found that the domain general belief in quick and fixed learning had a direct effect on the domain specific belief and developed the notion of epistemology into a belief system that includes five different domains: (a) certainty of knowledge (b) structure of knowledge (c) sources of knowledge (d) control of knowledge acquisition (e) speed of knowledge acquisition. Certainty of knowledge beliefs ranges from personal beliefs that knowledge is static throughout time to the view that knowledge is tentative and changes overtime. The structure of knowledge is better represented as theories. Sources of knowledge beliefs are the beliefs that people hold regarding where knowledge comes from; whether it comes from those in authority to something that can be discovered and learned by anyone. The control of knowledge belief relates to the beliefs individuals hold about the ability to learn, ranging from the belief that ability to learn is fixed at birth or that the ability to learn changes throughout an individual’s life. The speed of knowledge acquisition belief refers to the belief in how quickly knowledge can be acquired. Individuals hold beliefs that range from the perception that knowledge will only be learned in a small amount of time or it won’t be learned at all to the belief that most things can be learned by most people if enough time is dedicated. These domains are proposed to be more or less independent of each other, suggesting that an individual can hold sophisticated beliefs in one domain and more naive belief in another. The point being that one cannot assume that if individuals are mature in one belief then they are necessarily mature in all of their epistemological beliefs.
Schommer (1993) further examined the influence of epistemological beliefs on overall performance of secondary students. This study concluded that the less students believed in quick learning, simple knowledge, certain knowledge and fixed ability, the better were the cummulative grade point assessment (CGPA) that they earned. This point is applicable when it was revealed that belief in simple knowledge, certain knowledge and quick learning decreased from freshman to senior years. When examining the attitudes and beliefs of students, it is important to examine those concepts within the context of the school environment while also seeking to understand how these concepts influence student achievement in education and connection to the school environment.
Wichadee and Orawiwatnakul (2012) stated that student bonding is often seen as ways to assist the learner create a positive atmosphere that will promote participation in the class, therefore making students more comfortable in the often socially risky environment. Substantial body of research such as Owens (2008) has shown that school social environment has broad influence on learners learning and growth, including major aspects of their social, emotional and ethical development. Hawkins, cataano, kisterman, Abbott and Hill (1999) stated that when students find there school environment to be supportive and caring, they are less likely to become involved in violence, substance abuse and problem bahaviour. Fraser (2004) in a study discovered that positive school related and developmental outcomes for students are more rooted in the interactions among: family, community, environment and school and these may have a direct or indirect impact on student achievement. To a large extent, the lack of protective measure within these factors makes a student exposed to negative outcomes. Environment as one of the factors plays important role in the life of every individual either students or teacher, how people are shaped by the environment they live in has been an important and recurrent question in the social sciences. Studies have shown that environment as to a large extent affect both the physical and psychological potentials of individuals. This has led to the contention that many students fail to develop their potentials due to inadequate environmental stimulation.
The environmental health problems in Nigeria Schools pointed out some unhealthy practices in secondary schools, these include sitting of schools, inadequate facilities, insufficient sick buildings, poor ventilation and these may adversely affect the health of students and teachers which will in turn reflect on students’ performance. Therefore, for the students to carry out his learning effectively and efficiently, it is necessary that learning takes place in a very conducive environment. Similarly, the community will in a large extent affect academic achievement of the student, as many spend a vast amount of their time there, residing, socializing with friends, participating in local activities and often attending local schools and day-care centers. These student will thus have numerous daily interactions with local peers, adults and services; their behavior, attitudes and opportunities will be shaped in this setting through positive or negative role models and local attitudes because schools are often directly or indirectly community institutions. Wilson (1987) asserted that many negative outcomes are observed in communities that have high poverty rate, which include high levels of drop out and low levels of student achievement because children in this type of community rarely interact with people who are employed and this causes students to question the value of education. In this social milieu, both students and teachers become discouraged and put in less effort, leading to drastic downward cycle of low expectations and low achievement. Thus the extent of community support students have will in a large extent affect their performance in school. Internet as a factor has also contributed to students’ academic achievement in accounting concept.
Nai and Gill (2007) stated that internet use is spreading rapidly into life and directly affects people’s ideas and behaviour. Due to the development and spread of cheaper and more user friendly computer technology and software such as portable computers, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, the use of the Internet has increased rapidly. There are many benefits associated with internet use, such as access to needed information, worldwide access to news and events, and interpersonal communication through email, social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, whatsapp. Technology is used to support and enhance teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria. Marshall (2002) stated that technology has been used in classroom and new uses of technology such as podcasting are constantly emerging. Various technologies deliver different kinds of content and serve different purposes in the classroom for improving learning and aiding learners’ academic achievement. For instance, word processing and e-mail promote communication skills; database and spreadsheet programs promote organizational skills and improve students’ knowledge about accounting concepts. Therefore, the proportion and time secondary school student spend online (like entertainment, music, gaming, chatting) for education compared to non-education will determine their success academically.
Chou (2001) highlights that Internet has become an important component of people’s everyday life throughout the world, these ranges from its support in improving the way people seek information, conduct research, perform business transactions and communicate with others and various other features. Jones (2007) stated that internet has become an integral part of almost every secondary school student, while a large proportion of secondary school students think that the Internet is extremely beneficial to their education, specifically for conducting research and communicating with their peers, a small proportion of student seem to experience academic problems as a result of excessive use of the Internet. The Internet is a relatively new channel for scholarly resources and contains vast quantities of information that vary a great deal regarding its contents, aim, target group, reliability. Hence, Chapman (2002) stated that the internet user should be aware of the diverse information available on the Internet and should be educated in the criteria by which the information is assessed and used to improve their performance. In today’s environment the teacher is expected to have knowledge about the use of computer and internet in order to improve and enhance classroom learning which will bring about academic achievement in accounting concept.
Statement of the Problem
There have been arguments as regard secondary schools’ speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors. The question is, is there any correlation between speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage and students academic achievements in accounting? And what extent has it influence secondary school students’ achievement in accounting concept in Ondo State. This therefore, is the problem to be investigated in this study.
Purpose of the Study:
The study aims to examine the influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement in accounting concept. And also to examine the purpose of the implication of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ondo state. This study therefore would look into the in-depth of Academic performance in relation to utmost outcome. It is hope that the study would therefore unveil some desirable performance expected of every student as a means of actualizing the classroom goals and objectives. And also to investigate; the effect of speed of knowledge acquisition on secondary schools students’ academic achievement, effect of community bounding on secondary school students’ academic achievement, effect of internet usage on secondary school students academic achievement, the combine influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement in selected accounting concept, the relative influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement in selected accounting concepts.
The research work aims to answer two research questions which are as follow;
What is the combined influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement in accounting? What is the relative influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors on secondary school students’ academic achievement in accounting?
Significance of the Study:
The findings of this study will afford to help secondary school students participate in speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage activities that will improve their academic performance. Teachers and counsellors will be able to use the results to predict the performance of certain students based on the influence of their knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage activities. In addition, it is our hope that the findings will have a wider implication for all stake holders in the educational sector from local government boards to the federal board, various private entrepreneur in education sector and most importantly the government as it will give them more insight into seeing the influence of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and Internet usage factors on Academic Achievements of Secondary School Students of our society and hereby given them reason why they should be more committed to the education sector. Also this research is said to contribute to the existing literature on analysis of the impact of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and Internet usage factors on the Academic performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria.
Scope of the study
The study covered four selected secondary schools in Owo Local Government area; the project work would not go beyond Ondo State. The project is carried out within the purview of speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors as predictor for secondary school academic achievement. Hence, the result will be applicable elsewhere outside the study area as long as it is within the academic environment.
This research work examined speed of knowledge acquisition, community bonding and internet usage factors influencing secondary school students’ academic achievement in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo-State.
Definition of Terms
Speed of Knowledge Acquisition: This simply means the rate at which someone absorbs and store new information through learning process.
Epistemological belief: Epistemological beliefs express the beliefs on the nature and scope of knowledge and gaining knowledge (learning) and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification.
Community: This is define as a group of members who live in a certain locality and interact with one another while sharing common interests or goals,
Bonding: Bonding is defined as an agreement or friendship that unites individuals or peoples into a group. This simply means to establish a close emotional relationship to or with another.
Community Bonding: This is forming of special relationship by the community either to achieve a specific goal or for decision making. Under this study, the community come together to meet on how the student can achieve in accounting.
Internet: Internet is a global collection of computer networks that are linked together by devices called routers and use a common set of protocols for data transmission known as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol), the primary purpose of the internet is to facilitate the sharing of information’s.
Internet Usage: This is the level at which students have a contact with information resource for optimal utilization and improvement on learning.
Student’s Achievement: Academic achievement or academic performance is an important parameter in measuring success in students and to check the outcome of learning..