Title page

Approval page



Table of content


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Grading system

1.2 Grade classification

1.3 History of Kwara state polytechnic and department of statistics

1.4 Statement of the problem

1.5 Objectives of the study

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Definition of terms


2.0 Literature review

2.1 Data collection

2.2 Test of significance for the Spearman’s rank correlation

2.3 Spearman’s rank correlation


3.0 Data presentation, tabulation and analysis

3.1 Graphical presentation

3.2 Tabulation of data

3.3 Data analysis


4.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

4.1 Summary of findings

4.2 Conclusion

4.3 Recommendation

4.4 References

4.5 Appendix of data



this project is mainly concerned with the statistical analysis of student’s academic performance in ND programmes (NDI and ND II) in Kwara state polytechnic, in which the department of Mathematics and statistics was chosen as a case study for this research.

National diploma program is a course that is offered for at least 16 months (four semesters in all) i.e. two semesters for each section, after the first sectional examination, the students academic performance is determined by the use of  grade point (G.P). if the grade point is below 2.00, the student is either to repeat the class and if it is below 1.5, he/she is to withdraw from the school.

Students can also be withdrawn if he/she had failed four (4) or more departmental courses; but if the G.P is from 2.00 to 2.49, it is graded as a pass, when it is 2.50-2.99, it is graded as a lower credit and when it is 3.50 -4.00, it is graded as distinction. All these grades from pass to distinction gives the student who has each pass to the next level (i.e. the last session).

The grade points could be calculated as follows:

1.1 Grading system

% mark range Numerical grade Grade

75-100 4.00 A

70-74 3.50 AB

65-69 3.25 B

60-64 2.00 BC

55-59 2.75 C

50-54 2.50 CD

45-49 2.25 D

40-44 2.00 E

Below 400

1.2 Grade Classification

Grade point Classification

3.50-4.00 Distinction

3.00-3.49 Upper credit

2.50-2.99 Lower credit

2.00-2.49 Pass

1.50-1.99 Failed (repeat)

0.00-1.49 Withdraw

The score grade, credit hour and points could be used by the students to calculate their grade point depending on the score grade the students have. In a course if the student’s scores are below 40marks or above 40marks, he/she has passed the course.

1.3 History of Kwara state polytechnic and the department of mathematics and statistics

The department of mathematics and statistics has been existing since the establishment and approval of the institution (Kwara state polytechnic) formerly known as Kwara state college of technology in 19 72. The Kwara state polytechnic Ilorin, was established by his Excellency; the then military governor of Kwara state, Col. David Bamigboye. The decision to establish the polytechnic was announced during the launching of the four year development plan in 1971.

The college eventually came into existence following the promulgation of Kwara state Edict No. 4 of 1972 (now overtaken by the edict No. 21 of 1984), edict No. 13 of 1987 and edict No. 7 of 1994) as a body empowered by statue “to provide for studies, training research and development of techniques in arts and language, applied sciences, engineering, management and commerce, education and as well in other spheres of learning”.

The Kwara state polytechnic formally commenced operation in January 1973 with an administrative machinery patterned closely after the existing motto as: TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND SERVICE. The rector is Alhaji Mas’ud Elelu and the head of department of statistics is Mr. Salawu Y. Folorunsho and the examination officer for the department is Mrs. Ayelabegan. Students admitted into the department must have at least four (4) ordinary levels “o level” credits pass with mathematics and English language.

A student with a credit pass in mathematics and pass in English language is admitted into the department but a student with a credit pass in English and ordinary pass in mathematics may not be admitted into the department.

1.4 Statement of the problem

The statement of the case study (i.e. statistical analysis; spearman’s rank correlation) of students’ academic performance in National Diploma (NDI and ND II), the analysis is to show the relationship or to ascertain if there is a correlation between the first semester NDI result and second semester ND II result. By so doing, we will be able to give relevant advices and proffer solution to the poor performances in the National Diploma Programme.

1.5 Objectives of the study

- To know and be sure if there is any relationship between the first semester ND I result and second semester ND II result.

- To measure the strength of the relationship between the students’s performances using spearman’s rank correlation (positive, negative or zero correlation).

1.6 Significance of the study

The aim and purpose of any student in any tertiary institution is to have an excellent academic performance. Likewise, the parents who sent their wards to school are anxiously waiting for their child/children to come back home with a good academic performance at the end of the ND programs. It is on these reasons, we have chosen this topic, so that people could know how far their academic performances are and then see if there is a way we could offer one or two suggestions on how students can do better in their academic pursuit.

1.7 Definition of terms

National Diploma (ND): It is an award given to a student after fulfillment of the course.

Pass: It refers to the grades students have;

A Distinction

B Excellent

C Good

D Fair, it is at times denoted by pass (P)

E and F Fail



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