A REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SMOKING, LEVEL OF EXERCISE, WEIGHT ON MEDICAL COST. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTER OWERRI)


A REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SMOKING, LEVEL OF EXERCISE, WEIGHT ON MEDICAL COST. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTER OWERRI)

ABSTRACT:  

This research “work” focused on a regression analysis on the impact of smoking, level of exercise, weight on medical cost.The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of smoking, level of exercise, weight on medical cost, using federal medical center owerrias a case study. Five research questions and three research hypothesis guided the study.

In this study, a exploratory research design was adopted, the population comprises of medical practitioners and some selected patients in the federal medical center owerri, various analytical tools and soft wares such as tables, and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) will be used in analyzing data for this study. And to address the research hypothesis, the Correlation was used.  

Relevant literature were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study. As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made: smokers are liable to spending more as medical cost when they fall ill. The more exercise the lower the risk of getting ill. There is an effect of regular exercise and smoking level on medical cost of patients in Nigeria.

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made: the importance of avoiding inactive lifestyle by all humans should be demonstrated becauselife style choice can make a big impact on mortality as participating in physical activity

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABBREVIATION

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE:   GENERAL INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

1.2. Aims and objectives of the study

1.3. Significance of the study

1.4. Scope of the study

1.5. Limitation of the study

1.6. Research Questions

1.7. Research Hypotheses

1.8. Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO:   REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. INTRODUCTION

2.2. IMPLICATIONS OF SMOKING

2.3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RECREATION (HPRA)

PRESCRIPTION OF EXERCISES FOR A HEALTHY LIVING AND WELLNESS

HEALTH BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND FITNESS

HEALTH, FITNESS AND CORRELATE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, HEALTH, FITNESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG YOUTHS

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, QUALITY OF LIFE, FITNESS AND LIFE EXPECTANCY

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2. POPULATON OF STUDY

3.3 DATA COLLECTION METHOD

3.4 MODEL SPECIFICATION

3.3 DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

BIO DATA OF RESPONDENTS

DATA ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary of Findings

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study

The increase in the number of people who are ill in the various health establishments has risen geometrically overtime. Most of these illnesses may be as a result of unhealthy lifestyles and habits. Amongst this various unhealthy lifestyles and habits are smoking, lacks of exercise, weight, poor dietary just to mention but a few. In Nigeria specifically, a lot has been said about smoking and lack of exercise. Smokers as they say are liable to die young, though a lot of publicity has gone out to this regard, most smokers have rather not taken heed to this meaning but have rather seen it as a normal jingle without really pondering over it them to make changes in their life styles and bad habits.

Lack of exercise “as deadly as smoking” is now causing as many deaths as smoking in Nigeria and across the world.This has also contributed to the unprecedented rise in illness across Nigeria.

Strong evidence shows that lack of exercise which leads to physical inactivity increases the risk of many major adverse health conditions including:

Death (from any cause), coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, metabolic syndrome (including obesity and abnormal blood cholesterol levels), breast and colon cancer, depression etc.

It estimated that overall, physical inactivity which is caused by lack of exercise caused more than 5.3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008 which Nigeria is not excluded. The researchers suggest this is equivalent to the 5 million deaths attributed to smoking in 2000 (Kingsley 2012: 42).

It is generally believed that a regular exercise helps to

⦁    reduce the risk of falling ill

⦁    controls your weight

Improve your mental health and mood

⦁     Improve your ability to do daily activities

Increase your chances of living longer, etc.

There may also be a relationship between the weight of a person and the propensity to fall ill. This study helps to explore those unique relationship between the various parameters mentioned earlier in this study.

1.2. Aims and objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of the study:

1.    To know if there is a relationship between smokers and their weight.

2.    To study the impact of smoking and lack of exercise on health conditions of patients.

3.    To know the nature of relationship between smoking, weight, level of exercise on the medical cost of patients.

4.    To study the relationship between weight and health care cost of patients.

1.3. Significance of the study

The importance of this study seeks to unveil the impact of smoking, level of exercise, and weight on medical cost of patients in Nigeria. With the view of advising the generality of Nigeria based on the statistical discoveries made from the study.

This study also seeks to study the relationship between weight of patients on medical cost of patients, smokers and their medical cost and level of exercise of patients and their corresponding medical cost. All these would assist in advising smokers and people who don’t exercise based on the findings from the study.

1.4. Scope of the study

The scope of this study is centered on the impact of smoking, less exercising on the weight and health care cost of patients using the federal medical center Owerri Imo state as a case study.

1.5. Limitation of the study

Time constraint

 The major limitation of the study is the time constraint; the researcher was inhibited by time as there was no enough time to cover all patients in the hospital.

Financial constraint

Another constraint of this study is financial constraints, lack of adequate finances in printing enough questionnaires for the patients and to equally interview the health practitioners.

1.6. Research Questions

1. Is smoking dangerous to health?

2. Is there a relationship between smoking and poor health condition.

3. Is there a relationship between lack of exercise and poor health condition?

4. Do you think that smoking, lack of regular exercise affect the weight and health condition adversely?

5. Suggest ways of making smokers quit smoking.

1.7. Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

H0: there is no relationship between smoking and medical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between smoking and medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 2

H0: there is no relationship between lack of regular exercise andmedical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 3

H0: there is no relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients

H0: there is a relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise and medical cost of patients

1.8. Definition of Terms

Smoking:the activity or habit of smoking cigarettes.

Exercise:a physical or mental activity that you do to stay healthy or become stronger. It can equally be a set of movements or activities that you do to stay healthy

Weight:how heavy somebody or something is which can be measured in kilograms or pounds.

Medical:connected with illness and injury and their treatment.

REFERENCE

al’Absi M, Carr SB, Bongard S. Anger and psychobiological changes during smoking abstinence and in response to acute stress: prediction of smoking relapse. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;66(2):109-115.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

American Lung Association. About COPD.Accessed at wwwlungorg/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html on February 11, 2014.

Canivet CA, Ostergren PO, Jakobsson IL, et al. Infantile colic, maternal smoking and infant feeding at 5 weeks of age. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36(3):284-291

Cantrell J, Vallone DM, Thrasher JF, et al. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52206. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Cardinale A, Nastrucci C, Cesario A, Russo P. Nicotine: Specific role in angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis.Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012;42(1):68-89.

Pate RR, Pratt MP, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA,. 1995; 273: 402–407.

American College of Sports Medicine.Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 6th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 104: 1694–1740.

US Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, et al. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Eng J Med. 1993; 328: 538–545.

Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, et al. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 793–801.

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A REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SMOKING, LEVEL OF EXERCISE, WEIGHT ON MEDICAL COST. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTER OWERRI)



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