BROADCAST MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OYUN VILLAGE ILORIN).
The study is a critical examination of the role of broadcast media as tools for effective rural development. The rural means of communication are still the epitome of rural development. These broadcast medium of communication includes the following: radio, television and some modern means of communication such as the internet etc.
However, both primary and secondary data will be used in gathering information for the study. The secondary data will come as a review of documented materials, while the primary data will be obtained with the help of questionnaire and oral interview, and will be administered to the rural dwellers with the help of the researcher, who will help the unlettered ones to fill in the boxes by explaining the questions to them.
A total of 383 questionnaire will be distributed precisely to the Magaji of Oyun Village.
The data collected will be tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The four hypotheses formulated will be tested using chi-square method respectively.
The findings of the study will show among others that the broadcast media is a tool for an effective rural development.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
1.1 Introduction/Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose/Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope of the study/Determination
1.8 Conceptual and Operational Definition of Terms
THORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical framework
2.2 Strength of democratic participant theory
2.3 Research studies review
2.4 Radio as veritable tools for development
2.5 Roles of the development radio
2.6 Radio development, prospect and challenges
2.7 Media ownership of the study
2.8 Factors that militates against the rural communication development.
3.1 Research methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
3.6 Validity of the instrument
3.7 Method of administration of the instrument
3.8 Method of data analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT
4.1 Analysis of the field performance of the instrument
4.2 Testing of research hypothesis
4.3 Disclosure of findings
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Inspite of the fact that broadcasting historians could not provide the exact date of the beginning of radio, which is the fore runner of television, they agreed that the start of regular broadcasting service was in 1920.
It will be no understatement that it was a fore runner in developing primitive communities via its informing, educating and entertaining that the rural dwellers. Although, one could be wondering that the rate at which the urban areas in early ages and now get influenced by radio rural areas which have restricted access to this modern means of communication.
However, they still get influenced by broadcast media and the garment of influence can only depend on the government welfare in catering for its rural dwellers a they only have limited resources to have access to this mediated information of the broadcast media.
Another issue to be addressed is the perception and mindset of rural dwellers towards broadcast media and their message. Most rural dwellers believe that broadcast message are only meant for the sophisticated and the few of them that believe that the broadcast message is also meant for them had already developed the belief that most broadcast media message. Information are based on nothing but propaganda and even some of them find that broadcast programme and message are the abstract. As a result, they have little or no time to listen to them coming up with the statement that “I have preference in spending more time in the farm than listen to those mendacious stories of the broadcast media which is of little benefit to me”.
Ayo dujile 2005 XIV this is because rural dweller engage in either farming or fishing activities and see no reason to listen to broadcast that is not meant for the rustic people.
How can could the media solve the problem of in accessibility of broadcast media message in the rural setting? And broadcast media via its programme improve on it by inoculating the long built – in attitude of the rural dwellers towards mediated information of the media? It is against this back drop that this study is based and it will be examining the role broadcast media can play in grassroots development. Radio in particular is believed to be the most accessible to the rural dweller given the low cost of buying and of maintenance. In addition, people’s attitude would be measured on the broadcast media and their contents available to them.
The frame work of this project is to critically examine the broadcast media tool for effective rural development – the term broadcasting refer to the totality of the communication and technology process that allows for the transmission of audio. Visual signals to a large heterogeneous mass of people simultaneously. The inclusion of radio and television media under the generic term “MASS MEDIA” is justified because of their ability to reach large part of the population and their message is meant for public reception.
According to Head and Stealing (1982) “mass media are those means of communication that use technology to reach large part of the population almost simultaneously with the kind of news and entertainment ordinary people kind attractive and at a price that ordinary people can afford to pay”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the communication process especially as regards to broadcast media (Radio and Television) and modern mass media such as the prints and the electronic media the rural people seems to be marginalized due to several factors. In spite of these factors broadcast media (Radio and Television) could be positively exploited and civilized to met the needs of rural populace and also to curb the menace of illiteracy among the rural dwellers. How far the harnessing and utilization of these broadcasting media means would get to solve the problem of the rural thesis, the primary concern of this research.
Broadcast media are believed to be too exhibit?? due to the fact that they are mostly based in urban area. To this end, rural communities participation in the news making process is neglected. The quality of information made available to them either too poor or irrelevant to the needs, and aspirations of the rural community. Rural dwellers are therefore left what being carried along the broadcast media programming.
1.3 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at identifying the role of broadcasting media in the development of Oyun village, Ilorin East Local Government Area, Ilorin Kwara State. The study also intends to discover the usefulness and limitation of any of those media in the community the effectiveness of broadcast media will be determine and will serve as a basis for cornicing broadcast media in Oyun community.
The study also tends to evaluate how rural dwellers in Oyun community have been influenced by broadcast media message. The study will further took into the attitude of some of the rural dweller i.e. In Oyun, towards mediated information of the broadcast of media, which of the broadcast media influence the rural dweller positively and which ones need to be improved upon by giving suggestion via questionnaire that will be distributed to the people of Oyun.
Finally, this study will also look into how the government has been a useful tool in making rural dwellers have access to broadcast media message by providing necessary infrastructural facilities and how government has been carrying the rural dweller particularly in Oyun along in its policies and programmes.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be a humble contribution towards the development of broadcast media communication in Oyun Village it will also serve as a source of encouragement to carry the broadcast media and other modern mass media to the community of Oyun Village, Ilorin East Local Government and Ilorin, Kwara State.
This study will guide other researches who want to know and understand the broadcast media as tools for effective rural development. This study will also encourage other cultural studies in African indigenous communication pattern.
It will also serves as literature on the roles being played by broadcast media, toward the development of a given community.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions will act as guide to the issue to be treated in this study.
1. What type of broadcast media are used for effective means of communication by Oyun Villagers?
2. How credible are those media and their information to Oyun People?
3. Is there any complimentary role played by the broadcasting media with respect to the traditional means of communication in Oyun Village?
4. Do people of Oyun village refer to broadcast media as sources of acquiring information more than any other medium of communication?
5. Do these media serve the information needs of the people via development programme?
6. Can the broadcast media, television and radio endurance rural based communication more then the traditional means of communication?
7. What type of programmes are enjoyed most by or most satisfy the people of Oyun village?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS FORMED
HA – The broadcast media is an important agent of rural development
HO – The broadcast media is not an important agent of rural development.
HA – Broadcast media affect the rural dweller more positively then negatively.
HA – Broadcast media are more credible than the traditional means of communication in rural area.
H0 – Broadcast media are not more credible than the traditional means of communication in rural area.
HA – Radio is used more than any other category media of mass in Oyun village.
HO – Radio is not used more than any other category of media in Oyun village.
HA – A reasonable period of time are devoted to programme that are meant for rural dwellers.
HO – No period of time devoted to programme to the rural dweller.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/DELIMINATION
The study gives a brief background on the concept of broadcasting as stated in the introductory page of this research work. The study also identifies the broadcast medium art facts mostly used by the people of the community in the fast and present day.
The usefulness and limitation of these artifacts in serving the communication in the entire community is a result of the short period of time??
This study might also be limited to information collection from population figure of community under study, low literacy rate, time constraint are all part of the limitation.
Above all, the limitation of the case study is being influenced by the proximity of the case study to the researcher as well as transportation and financial constraint which make it necessary to choose a near by community based on geographical contiguity to the researcher.
1.8 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION TERMS
1. Conceptual Media – According to longman dictionary media are all the organization such as television, newspaper, radio magazine or all other forms through which people interact and get information for the public”.
OPERATIONAL MEDIA – It could be described as any medium through which information is being passed across to the people both by broadcast and nay other means of communicator.
2. CONCEPTUAL TOOLS – According to Longman dictionary, it is defined as “skill that is useful for doing your jobs”
OPERATIONAL TOOLS – A useful means through which goals can be achieved.
3. CONCEPTUAL COMMUNICATION – According to Longman dictionary, “it is the process by which people exchange information or express their thought and feelings”
OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS – It is the process by which we exchange our ideas, views, opinions, norms, valves, traditions beliefs etc from one person to another through a medium.
4. CONCEPTUAL EFFECTIVE – According to Oxford Advance Dictionary “it is producing the result that is wanted of intended producing a successful result”.
OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVES – Producing a successful result.
CONCEPTUA RURAL – A remote area to the country side, out of the city where people are dwelling with their common belief.
OPERATIONAL RURAL – An under developed area where people are living with a common norm..