CUSTOMERS PERCEPTION OF GSM INTERRUPTIVE ADVERTISEMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF GSM USERS IN ABRAKA
This study seeks to investigate customer’s perception of GSM interruptive advertisement in Nigeria. The study adopted cognitive dissonance theory of mass communication. The research methodology used in this research is the survey research of which questionnaires were administered to 120 respondents in Abraka. The research shown that the perception of GSM customers towards interruptive GSM SMS adverts is disturbing; due to the unending SMS adverts. The results of the research revealed that the perception of GSM users is that of annoyance, irritating invasion of privacy. The research recommends that GSM service provider should understand the perception and attitude of the customers before sending interruptive SMS advert. Nigeria communication Commission (NCC) should regulate the number of SMS advert which each service provider can send in a day. Service providers should send important SMS advert that is most needed by the customers. The SMS advert should be simple and easy.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi
1. Background to the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 10
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 11
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 12
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - 13
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 14
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature Review - - - - - - 16
2.2 Theoretical framework - - - - - 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study - - - - - - 30
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - 31
3.3 Sample Size - - - - - - - 31
3.4 Sampling Techniques - - - - - 31
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - 31
3.6 Procedure of data collection - - - - 32
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis - - - - 32
3.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - 32
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - 34
4.2 Data Analysis - - - - - - - 53
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 59
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 61
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 62
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 62
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - 64
APPENDIX (Questionnaire) - - - - - 67
1.1 Background to the study
According to Anil (2013:28) “Advertising via mobile devices or mobile advertisement is defined as the usage of interactive wireless media (such as cellular phones and pages, cordless telephones, personal digital assistances, two-way radios, baby crib monitors, wireless networking systems, GPS- based locators and maps) to transmit advertising messages to customers in form of time and location sensitive, personalized information with the overall goal to promote goods and services”. Whatever medium used in marketing of goods and services even ideas, advertising is the creation of public knowledge of a particular need of the public. TarunKant, et al (2010:98) “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or service by any identified sponsored”. According to the views of Nwabueze, Ezebuenyi and Ezeoke (2012:42) on advertising “the concept has been viewed from diverse perspective by various scholars, professionals and bodies. One of the acceptable definitions is that given by Advertiser Practitioners Council of Nigeria APCON, in its code of advertising practice which states that advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services, or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor”. The bottom line of the communication in advertisement is to influence or cause a behavioural change of patronage attitude by consumers towards different products of same utility. Advertising is gear to stimulate demand by creating awareness of a products and services. As a communication phenomenon, advertising plays a vital role in the development of business of buying and selling. This vital role is demonstrated easily in sphere of information which is central to the advancement of humanity. Okoro (1988) state that advertising is a channel for information dissemination of products, services and ideas, movement and places, the importance of advertising to human society cannot be overemphasized. According to Belch and Belch (2001)” the major tripod stand upon which every advertising industry leans on are advertisers (or clients advertising agencies and media organization)”.
Information technology affects all most everything about human life. From business to daily life; it shapes and reshapes not only commerce but also the way in which organizations implement their marketing strategies. It offers new dimensions and strategies and customer/organization interactions. Anil (2013:28) “the successful application of information technology that makes the “anytime-to-anyplace” communication possible”. The technological advance allows increased mobility and extended services even to remote areas. Since the introduction of short message services SMS, they has been an increase in the use of SMS in advertising communication. According Mboxinc. (2010), “the usage of SMS continues to grow because it is simple, easy to use and has enormous reach. Ultimately, consumers like to have choice in a way they communicate with business and increasingly consumers are turning to SMS”.
Nosa (2012) “the history of global (GSM) in Nigeria is traceable to the deregulation of telecommunication industry which gave birth to the GSM revolution from the year 2001 till the present (11 years now) under the civilian administration of president OlusegunObasanjo”. Which is about 15 years to this year 2016. Before the introduction of Global system for mobile communication (GSM), the Nigeria telecommunication limited was saddled with the responsibility of providing means of communication basically the landline which was bedeviled by corruption and misappropriation of fund.
The foremost GSM network provider that came on board was ECONET (now Airtel). It was formerly lunched on the 6th August 2001 and MTN Nigeria follow suit almost immediately. It is imperative to mention that the introduction of global system for mobile communication network provider such as Etisalat, reformed Econet (Airtel Nigeria) and Global Com Nigeria limited brought about huge transformation in the telecommunication industry.
Etisalat Nigeria commenced commercial operation on 23rd October 2008 with a promise to deliver innovation and quality service in Nigeria, since then Nigerian gas continues to witness its innovative services. Etisalat redefined speed with the roll-out of the urge 375G HSPA network and it has continued to prove it innovative company keen to give its subscribers the best possible experience at the most affordable price. This innovation led to the 12 million subscribers. It covers 36 states. In March 2009, the National Communication Commission (NCC) adjudged Etisalat as Nigeria best network and base on quality of service induces measured by the regulatory body, in 2011 after a similar assessment, Etisalat network was once again rated best. To date Etisalat Nigeria has won several industry awards for its innovation and quality service delivery. Some of these include; Brand of the year, fast growing GSM Company of the year best marketing company (Lindedinhttps//www.now you are talking)
Visafone was incorporated in Nigeria on June 20th, 2007 following the acquisition of cellom received its unified access. Service license as a telecom operation form the Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) on August. Although each of these network providers has its own peculiarity in terms of packages but all are also most similar in tariff war or SMS advert.
SMS marketing or advertising is the use of SMS medium as a communication channel between brands and end users that guarantee direct interaction with users. It’s a cost effective advertising strategy with unique, though streaming selling point, as the readers, though forced to read the message, eventually finds the words sinking into their mind sub-consciously. The advent of telecommunication in 2001 has brought to many individuals the opportunity to have a mobile phone. Due to the increase number of Nigeria population with mobile business ventures and even the telecommunication providers adopt the use of short message service to advertise their product and service.
Tarun Kant, et al (2010:98) “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or service by any identified sponsored”. The aim is to stimulate consumer minds. Many businesses have concentrated their resources on advertising in order to stimulate demand of their products and services. Internet, telemarketing and SMS advertisement have brought a drastic change in advertisement in an advent of win-win strategy; SMS has become the recent best mean to advertise. This is a result of consumer’s time management. Mbiadjo and Djeumene (2005:21) the increasing penetration level of the use of mobile telephone in the world, notably in developed economies since the 90s and the mobile technological breakthroughs and means of communication are some of these elements contributing to the birth of the mobile marketing concepts”. The use of bulk SMS platform by individuals and organization has increase drastically. Banks and other organizations engage in consumer relationship make use of SMS to sell their products to potential customers. The telecommunication service providers also make use of SMS to advertise some packages of the service providers.
MTN SMS advertisement include: Get brand new songs by MC galaxy. For GO gaga, FT Cynthia Morgan, Text 0032206 to 4100, or for KomolopCholop; Text 8 to 4100 to get “ celebrity Girlfriend” by Falz FT Reekado; season 2 just get better find out what happens when SAINTS get involved in scandals in scandals amongst saint Season 2, a digital soap opera on MTN mobile newspaper. Etisalat SMS advertisement include: Breaking local news free for 7 days to get it text BC to 655 for May.com. now #30/weekly afterwards for more products Dial *655#; Dear …. Health is wealth. Get 5 free days of Health and wellness sms and then #50 5days text SUB to 38777 at no cost.
Airtel SMS advert include: Reply bible to 54884 to confirm in daily study of the word of God; Enjoy chatting on Twitter Wechat, 2go, Eskimi, Facebook and other social networks with for #200 for 30days dial *990# now.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There has been observation by GSM users in Nigeria of the frequent advertisement dropping into the mobile phone of customers. This observation has brought different perception from customers of GSM operators. Some GSM customers have accused GSM operators of sending incessant adverts with short message services thereby interrupting them. Other also accused GSM operators for allowing individual business organizations for using the GSM SMS to advertise their products and services. These allocations have given them liberty to bombard the GSM customers with unending and repetition of advert through short messages services.
While accusing the GSM operators for sending deceptive SMS advert which after application GSM customers would be unfoundly charge to subscribing to the adverts, customers have been complaining that the interruption such as alerting for unnecessary attention; disturbing meetings; disturbing sleep and running of mobile phone battery. The problem posed by these accusations can only be solved by investigating the customer’s perception of GSM interruptive advert in Nigeria. This study, using the questionnaire will look into the perception of customers towards GSM adverts.
1.3 Objective of the study
This study has the overall purpose of investigating the customer perception of GSM interruptive adverts in Nigeria. It will specifically, study the following
1. To ascertain the frequency of GSM adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators
2. Determine the nature of interruption of GSM advert to GSM users.
3. To determine the attitude of GSM users towards GSM adverts
4. To find out the perception of GSM users towards interruptive GSM adverts.
1.4 Research questions
The research questions of this study seek to put the research work in a frame of work that is position to guide the research. The following are the research questions of this study.
1. What is the frequency of GSM adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators?
2. What is the nature of interruption of GSM advert to GSM users?
3. What is the attitude of GSM user towards GSM adverts?
4. What is the perception of GSM user towards interruptive GSM adverts?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to GSM operators and business organization that advertise their products and service to their prospect and existing customers. It will form a handy material of customer’s perception on telemarketing and teleadvertising for advert and strategic marketing communication planning. It will enhance GSM operator’s articulations of SMS advertising and the impact on GSM customers. The research will also provide an opportunity to study the impact of GSM in Nigeria economy.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In examining the perception of customers of GSM towards the interruptive GSM advertisement, the study will focus on the GSM users in Abraka. Since it will not be possible to study all the GSM users in Nigeria, this study will be confined to the study and investigation of Abraka population. Reasoning being that Abraka is a town with complete population demography which students, workers, elders, adults and teenagers etc. Investigation will be confined to cover this environment.
1.7 Definition of Terms/Concepts
1. Customers: Person who patronize an organization’s goods and service.
2. Perception: The attitude which people develop towards something or person.
3. Advert: Creation of public awareness of a particular product and services by an organization to stimulate demand.
4. Interruptive: This is regarded as a motive to halt a process.
5. GSM: Global service for mobile is a telecommunication network provider for cell phones communication
6. SMS: This is an acronym to short message service platform for texting message through GSM.
7. Telecommunication: Communication through telephone wireless.
8. Mobile phone: The cell phones that is handy for telecommunication..