Background of the Study

The Nigeria marketing environment today is one of aggressive and unfriendly competition among both manufacturers and service providers. Most companies adopt various marketing strategies in order to maintain or increase profit margin, market shares or sales volume of their products or services. In this effort, quite a fortune is spent on advertising by which the organizations hope to achieve these objectives.

Advertising is one of the most effective tools that manufacturing companies can utilize to create more demands for their product on account of it’s capacity to reach a large number of people at a relatively short time and cost. It involves the creation of demand for products and services with use of written, printed, spoken words, picture and diagrams.

Not only that, skillfully planned and directed advertising not only at home, but also abroad overcome prejudice combat, foreign competition, establish new habit, build good will creates employment, increase productivity, multiply sales and thus, lay a solid foundation for sustained economic development of any country. One contends that advertising is one of the most powerful socializing forces in culture.

Advertising sells more than product. It sets image value, goods and concepts of who we are and who we should be. It shapes our attitudes and our attitudes shape our behavior. Ahunaya (2004, P. 70).

According to the Encyclopedia, Americana (204), Advertising began around 3200 BC.

When the Egyptian stenciled inscription, the names of kings on the temple being built. Later they wrote run away slave  announcement on papyrus. Signboards were placed outside doors in

Greece and Egypt around 1500BC. Perhaps the most important event in history of advertising was the printing of the Gutenberg Bible about 1450 to 1455, the first time that Western man used the principle of moveable type. In about 1477, in London, the first printed advertisement in English announced a prayer book sale. The first newspaper advertisement appeared on the back paper of a London newspaper in 1625.

Advertising has since then been seen to help in economic development in ways of creating jobs, sponsoring sports and the art helps to provide affordable media which encourages competition, improves product, keep price low and enable people to make informed buying choices. Eluwa (2004, P.44).

The impact of advertising does not stop at the economy but also has influenced the social behaviour of youths greatly by way of sensitization, social interaction, modification and other wise. Using ESUT students as an example, advertising makes students too materialistic. Advert affects their value system and social behaviour because it suggests to them that the means to a happier life is the acquisition of more things. Baran (390).

Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) is located at the heart of Enugu State capital.

Advertising have influenced students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) by making them think that life is just about the acquisition of more things, instead of spiritual or intellectual enlightenment. Advertising creates opportunity of striving to attain high materialistic status in students.

⦁ Advertising creates in students liking and preference for a product.

⦁ Advertising stimulates thought about a new product to its consumer’s.

⦁ Advertising makes sure that all information about a product is communicated to its consumer, like the features, and location of sales of the product.

⦁ Advertising with its persuasive nature, builds brand preference and loyalty in its consumer’s.

Ozoh (1998, P. 13).

Statement of the Problem

Like other promotional techniques, advertising informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s beliefs, attitudes, images and behavior.

Here, the reason for advertising is that advertising is an important instrument of communication as far as commerce is concerned. Once the advertiser has captured the attention of his audience, he holds their interest long enough to make them aware of the production being offered. Successful advertisements do not merely entertain, but try to persuade the audience to buy. This is where the problem lies. People tend to have the belief that this persuasive quality of advertising has an impact on the social behavior of its audience, especially students because they are still within the age of being influenced by the media. Hence, the essence of this study.

The problem therefore is what impact has Gulder advertisement on the social behaviour of students of ESUT.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are as follows;

1. To examine whether Gulder advertisement impact on the behaviour of students of ESUT.

2. To examine the nature of impact Gulder advertisement has on the social behaviour of students of ESUT.

3. To determine  the level of  impact Gulder advertisement has on the social behaviour  of students of ESUT.

Research Questions

The study has the following research questions:

1. To what extent has Gulder advertisement impacted on the social behaviour of students of ESUT?

2. What is the nature of impact Gulder advertisement has on the social behaviour of students of ESUT?

3. To what level has Gulder advertisement impacted on the social behaviour of students of ESUT?

Scope of the study

The scope of this study is to examine the impact of Gulder advertisement on the social behaviour of students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu.

Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is that it will help researcher’s carryout similar study. It will also add to the level of knowledge on the impact of Gulder advertisement. This study will help to identify the impact of Gulder advertisement on the social behaviour of students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu.

Finally, it will provide the basis for stakeholder’s in planning advertising message.

Operational Definitions of Significant Terms

1. Impact: - Based on the study, it means that the researcher would look at how Gulder advertisement influences the social behaviour of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) Students. The researcher would also look at the powerful effect that Gulder advertisement has on the students.

2. Gulder Advertisement: - This is the act or means of making people aware of the product, Gulder Ultimate beer in order to encourage them to buy or use it. The researcher’s interest here is on the advertising message, and the influence it has on its audience especially ESUT students.

3. Social Behaviour: - This is a behaviour influenced or controlled by other persons or by organized society. Here, the researcher would look at how the social behaviour of ESUT students is been influenced by Gulder advertisement.

4. Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) Students: - This is the researcher’s area of focus in the study.




This chapter contains the summary of this research work, the conclusions, recommendations and suggestion for further studies.

Summary of findings

The researcher in this work discovered that Gulder advertisement has a great impact on the social behaviour of students of ESUT. The findings of the study showed that Gulder advertisement to a great extent has impacted on the student’s social behaviour. The researcher also discovered that most of the people living in any modern city today, including student are under the influence of advertising. Everybody and for most of our lives, we see and hear advertisements, even if you do not watch the television, you will listen to the radio. The findings indicated that Gulder advertisement can be used to change the behaviour of student in respect to their social life.

Gulder advertisement, from the finding in this research impacts negatively on the student’s social behaviour by making them act under the influence of alcohol after taking the Gulder beer which they must have seen in advertisement.

From the findings in this study, Gulder advertisement has an overwhelming negative impact on the social behaviour of the students of ESUT.

Most of the respondents were of the opinion that Gulder advertisement has indeed impacted negatively on the student’s social behaviour.


From the analysis gathered in this research, there is no doubt as to the great impact Gulder advertisement has made and is still to make in student’s lives especially in the lives of students of ESUT.

Again, the findings of the study indicated that Gulder advertisement had immense negative impact on the students by making them exhibit various anti-social behaviours like acting under the influence of alcohol contained in the Gulder beer. Though the work brought out the positive impact of advertising on the students, it also states clearly the negative impact of Gulder advertisement on the social behaviour of students of ESUT.

The study did not fail to prove that whatever impact advertising causes depends on the state of mind of the students and the findings made by the researcher in her course of the study.


Having critically analyzed the impact of Gulder advertisement on the social behaviour of students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), the researcher hereby made the following recommendation. Before an advert is designed, a great depth of research should be done to find out the group of people most likely to buy and used the product being advertising, in order to direct that particular advert to them. Advertisers should be more realistic

in their advertisements should be more realistic in their advertisement placement, so it would not seem as though advertising is done purposely to distort reality.

Manufacturing companies should carry out more pre-advertising and post advertising research to determine the effect of the advertisement.

The researcher also recommends that advertisers should present adverts the way they are, as an agent of choice about a product.

Suggestions for further studies.

In this research work, the researcher limited the study to Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) because of time constraints, fund and resources. But for further studies, research should be done in other conventional universities to use it in generalizing the entire students.

The researcher suggests that other research properly to ensure accurate results from the students. Advertisers should be more realistic in their placement of advertisements, and conscious of the

message content of the advertisement.



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