THE IMPACT OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON THE RURAL DWELLERS (A CASE STUDY OF BARUTEN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE).


THE IMPACT OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON THE RURAL DWELLERS (A CASE STUDY OF BARUTEN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE).  

ABSTRACT

     This study was under taken to ascertain the impact of radio using Baruten as a case of the study.

      The study provided background information in the history of radio programming and radio kwara. It also sought to find out the problems associated with the dissemination of development information by the radio to the rural dwellers.

       The method used is the case for the study and the study employed the use of questionnaire in gathering data. A total number of 180 questionnaires were analyzed and graphically explained with the use of table and simple percentage method.

       The data analysis revealed that radio programming has had much impact on rural dwellers. 

       The study therefore, recommend that community radio programming should be encourage and spread widely for effective information dissemination in rural areas.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of content vi

List of table vii

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study                                      1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                      7

1.3 Objectives of the study                                          8

1.4 Research question                                                 9

1.5 Significance of the study                                       7

1.6 Scope of the study                                               11

1.7 Operational definition of terms                           12

1.8 Limitations of the study                                      13                                                                                       

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

2.1 Theoretical framework                                19

2.2 Conceptual framework                                      

2.3 Review of empirical studies / review of related literature                                                          32   

2.4 Radio as a medium                                            50

2.5 Types of radio programming

2.6 Characteristics of radio

2.7 Functions of radio programming              55 

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology

3.1 Research design                                                62

3.2 Research variable 

3.3 Universe of the study

3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques      64

3.5 Unit of analysis                             

3.6 Instrumentations

3.7 Validity of the instrument

3.8 Method of administration of the instrument

3.9 Method of data analysis 

3.10 Population of the study 

CHAPTER FOUR 

4.1 Analysis of the performance of the research     instrument

4.2 Analysis of the demographic segment of the research questionnaire

4.3 Answers to the research question

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

References

LIST OF TABLES AND ILLUSTRATION

TABLE 1: Sex of the respondent

TABLE 2: Age distribution of the respondents

TABLE 3: Marital status of respondents

TABLE 4: Educational qualification

TABLE 5: Occupational distribution of respondents

TABLE 6: Respondent time of listening to radio

TABLE 7: Radio as a medium that disseminate development Information about the community

TABLE 8: No station accessible to the respondents

TABLE 9: Functions / role of the radio to the respondents

TABLE10: Respondent rating of the radio based on transmission of developmental information.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY   

The media of communication i.e.; the channel through which information is conveyed to the general public. Such channel includes; radio, television, newspaper e.t.c. 

The radio as a medium of communication is one of the most ambitious. The most effective and cheapest means of communication. Apart from its primary response of informing, educating and entertaining the public, it provides opportunity for man to understand both his immediate and distant environment.

Programming on the other hand is the broadcast programming of a radio formed or content that is organized for commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting of radio station.

According to Zuma 1 (2011), the radio is a nation builder instrument, it can be a important partner in the drive to make rural area economically and socially viable.

As a means of communication, the radio is unique in both its portability and ability to reach people in urban and rural areas.

It can be use to transmit music, speech and other information to a large audience.

For Daramola 1 (2001: 55), radio reaches every corner of the globe. The rural community most especially relies on it for information because it breaks language barriers and illiteracy. This is why it is an effective tool for disseminating development information to the rural areas for adequate communication growth.

As it may be, this study will examine the impact of radio programming on rural dweller using Baruten as the study. 

1.1.1 HISTORY OF RADIO PROGRAMMING IN NIGERIA                                                                              

The term “Radio” has its root in the Latin word, “Radius” which means a spoken radius ray. Radio’s etymology become obvious when it is realized that in physical sense, radio is essentially the emission of ray or wave that bear signal called programs the wave which are generated by a transmitter are propagated, an aerial or an antenna that represent the central of a circles for reception by radio set turned to the frequency on which the transmitter is radiating.

      According to OLULANDELE et al, radio programming in Nigeria began in 1932, through the establishment of the radio distribution services. It was as a result of the urge a determination of the British colonial authority to link the colonies with the writer country to serve as an instrument of propaganda for the Britain and the whole world. So the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) empire service was introduced.

Radio programming in Nigeria also began as part of the departmental and post and telegraph; which was then Public Relation Services. The post and telegraphs engineers used the station in programming programs through wires connected to loud speakers located at different points in Lagos.

After three years of experiment, the country realized it could operate this system which heralded the establishment of wired broadcasting that was named “Radio Distribution Service” (RDS).

      On June 16 1951, the Nigeria Broadcasting Service (NBS) was firmly established by Governor John Stuart McPherson. It was later changed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and began operation in April 1957 by an act of parliament. 

       However, the glamour for the right of reply Chief Obafemi Awolowo led to the formation of radio and television station in the western region, Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) responded on October 31, 1959.

        In 1975, the Murtala-Obasanjo military regime declared its intention to halt the proliferation of radio station in Nigeria by creating a centralized organization in to cater for the whole country. The government enacted the federal radio corporation of Nigeria Decree no 8 of 1978; which gave the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), right overall existing radio station the country with the re-organization, it assumed its new name and four zonal offices were created in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu and the radio skill is in existence today.

       More so, many private radio station have been established as a result of the promulgation of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Decree No. 38 in August 24, 1992. This Decree gave right to the ownership of broadcasting station by private individuals.

       For Richard Aspinal, (1971) the use of wireless for popular programming was a consequence of the world war of 1914 – 1918. The fighting services needed improved equipment and large number of wireless signal. It was these near who on their return to civil life held the demand for broadcasting services.

       Early radio was very much a novelty for listeners and broadcaster alike. The early receiving software bulky and difficult to tune the loudspeaker had not been invented and listening was limited to headphones

       In the studies there were no mixing panels, no magnetic microphones, no electrical pick-ups and certainly no tape recording. The microphones had to be shaken before use, like a bottle of machine gramophone records were played by gramophones in front of open microphones.

       But the radio has gradually metamorphosed into a digital state that rural dwellers can carry every where even in their mobile phones, Ipods and small radio sets.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

       As Daramola (2001: 104) rightly observed, the radio as a medium of mass communication bridges the gap between the government and the governed. It is a two – way communication that provides companionship through human voice and exhilarating music.

     Therefore, it is undoubtedly clear that radio programming can act as a catalyst for rural development because of its versatility of informing hundreds of thousands listeners at different times of the day. However, this can be more effective in the rural community through the use of local dialects. Thus, what impact does radio programming have on the people living in rural community?

      How do they perceive information disseminated by the various radio stations?  Through what ways do the media messages mobilize them to participate in the development process of their community and the nation at large? How credible are the content of radio programming? 

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 

     This study seek to find out what impact does radio programming has on rural dwellers using Baruten people as a case study.

     This research will further ascertain the reaction of the people living in rural community to radio message, how this message impact their way of life most especially in the area of development and if radio programming as a medium of communication; has been able to bridge its gap between the government and the people of the community.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

        For the purpose of this study, the following research questions are formulated:

1. Have radio stations been effective in disseminating development information?

2. What influence does radio programmes have on rural dweller lives?

3. Does radio serve as a link between the government and the rural dwellers?

4. What measures should be put in place to ensure effective and efficient radio programming to the rural community?

5. What impact does radio programming have on rural dwellers?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        This study will enable the various radio stations to understand and appreciate their strengths and weaknesses in order to know areas to improve for effective information dissemination.

        It will also assist radio owners and managers in describing better policies of enhancing communication programmes in the rural areas.

        More so, it will bring to conscious the relevance of radio programmes to the rural community in order to enable them appreciate it and comprehend message efficiently.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

        The scope of the study is to determine the impact of radio message toward the development of rural community.

        Using Baruten as case study, this research will further state the impact of the radio programming in rural dwellers obstacle to the impact of programming in information disseminating and solution to ensure good interpretation of radio message by the receivers.

        The rural dwellers in this community constitute the target population of the study which includes people of different occupation such as farmers, artisans, traders, students, civil servants e.t.c.

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. IMPACT : The blow of one thing striking another

2. RADIO PROGRAMMING: The plan of allocating programs according to the time of the day and duration of each programs

3. RURAL DWELLERS: People living in the rural areas.

4. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: It is those communications that provide change(s) in the receiver’s behavior or attitude as were intended by the sender of the messages.

5. DEVELOPMENT: The action in process of developing or being developed, it is also a new stage of event; it is a product in invention.

6. RADIO: The communication of audible signals encoded in electromagnetic waves.

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

      This study is based on the impact radio programming on the rural dwellers with reference to information delivery the fact that radio programming is merit of developmental growth in Nigeria.

      However, this study as any other study was subjected to a number of limitations on its own, claim to excellence.

      The following project factors are considered to an extent limited to the study of this project work.

       The lack of the relevant information that enable us to understand the actual role of radio programming on rural dwellers. 

       Inadequate time due to the fact we have to combine other academic responsibilities with its research work.

       The irresponsiveness of few respondents that is likely to alter the predetermined response rate of the questionnaires given.

1.1.2 HISTORY OF RADIO KWARA

       The kwara state broadcasting corporation, Ilorin, with broadcasting identification, “Radio kwara” started broadcasting service in Ilorin in 1956 as a relay station. It was than known as provincial broadcasting house.     

        The one fourth kilo watt {kW} medium wave transmitter which was then used covered only eight kilometer radius of Ilorin.  

        However, kwara state Broadcasting Corporation as constitution today finally come into being with enactment of the kwara edict no 3 of 1979, but with retrospective effect from April 10th, 1978, this was not of the beneficiary by product of the first state creation in Nigeria.         

      On the creation of the state in 1967, a master plan was drawn up and approved for the country base on the number and capacity of transmitter and mode of transmission to be sited in each creation owning to the topography of kwara state, it was decided that it should covered with both medium and shirt wave transmitter.       

          In 1974, instruction work started in the modern studio/broadcasting house the 10kw short wave and 20kw medium wave transmitting station sites these facilities wave put in use is from 19th December, 1976 however, following the directive of the federal government the short wave transmitter was closed down in 1976. On 1st April, 1978, in camphene with federal government is directive which transfers all radio Nigeria station on the state to their respective host states. The formal handing over of the station by the NBA to the kwara state government was reframed by Mr. Horation Agedoti of radio corporation, Lagos in 5th September,1978, all the existing staff the wave given the option of either staying with corporation or going to Federal Radio Corporation. Those who opted to stay were retained.                                

       At the time of takeout by the state government, the state had broadcasting house situated at the present premises and transmitting station. The two inherited ten kW transmitters were very old in fact only one of them was working satisfactorily at the time of over in 1978.   

       In 1984, the federal government booted the transmitting capacity of radio kwara through the directive that transferred the federal radio station in Ilorin to the kwara state government. The station then had two {2} 50kw medium wave transmitted at budo eko. With this development, the state government approved the recommendation at the corporation to install the four imported 10kw medium wave transmitter in the fringe area of the then kwara state for effective coverage. Two of them were installed Egba. One at okike near okene {both now in kogi state} and the forth at koro in new bussa {now in Nigeria skew}. All the three booked station were completed and commissioned.             

       In spite of the giant strides, in 199 the transmitting stations at bin do eko witnessed a senior set – back when the 840 feet tower mast was struck and destroyed by thunder storm. This problem became a senior challenge to cry tend with; bearing in mind that the transmitting station had then became an integral part of radio kwara and a dependable ally on the performance of its statutory responsibility.

      Effort to resuscitate the station between 2000 and 2002 resulted in the provision of a new tower mast and a 50 Kw thomcast transmitter to restore normal transmission. In spite of the effort by Alhaji Mohammed Lawal’s administration, the transmitter remained insufficient. However, the government of Dr. Bukola Saraki, in assumption of office in May 2003 renovated the station with award of contract for the provision of modern studio equipment and additional 50Kw Harris transmission totally over #300,000,000.

      This singular development has made “Radio Kwara” not just one of the few radio station with installed digital studies in Nigeria, but one of the first stations in Nigeria, to comply with the global directive in conversion from analog broadcast to digital broadcast.

HYPOTHESIS

        Based on the research questions, the following are derived:-

Hi: Radio stations have been effective in disseminating development information.

H0: Radio stations have not been effective in disseminating development information.

H2: Radio programmes have great influence on rural dwellers lives.

H0: A Radio programme does not have any influence on rural dwellers lives.

H3: Radio serves as link between the government and the rural dwellers.

H0: Radio does not serve as link between the government and the rural dwellers.

H4: The measures that should be put in place to ensure effective radio programming to the rural community.

H0: Measures should not be put in place to ensure effective radio programming to the rural dwellers.

H5: Radio programmings have great impact on rural dwellers.

H0: Radio programming does not have impact on rural dwellers. 

.

THE IMPACT OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON THE RURAL DWELLERS (A CASE STUDY OF BARUTEN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE).



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