THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE BRONG AHAFO EDUCATION DIRECTORATE
ABSTRACT: Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated. Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position. The motivation for the study was prompted by the low level of concentration on employee motivation as compared to the employees of other organizations which have caused an acute shortage of qualified teachers at the basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level due to high migration to other sector (GNAT Report, 2013). Motivation in Ghana Education Service is down, the workers and the government, who are responsible for implementing the national policies and programmes relating to pre-tertiary education in the country, have clashed many times in the recent years over salary and conditions of service (GNAT Report, 2013). It is against this background that the research investigated into: “The Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate”. The general objective of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees; to identify factors that motivate employees; to determine the employees‟ performance and to assess the effect of motivation on the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate. Mixed methodology, that is questionnaires and interviews were used to gather data and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and content analysis for qualitative aspect. The study has revealed that promotion and opportunity for advancement are the major motivation factors and the study has also revealed that motivation level is low in the area of wages and salaries. Ghana Education appears to be paying lowest wages and salaries in the industry. It is therefore recommended that Ghana Education Service (management) should consider as a matter of urgency, the need to make upward adjustment in wages and salaries which will go a long way to reduce the high incidence of labourturnover.TABLE OF CONTENTSPageTitle page iDeclaration iiAbstract iiiAcknowledgements ivDedication vTable of contents viList of tables xList of figures xiList of abbreviations xiiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the study 1 Statement of the problem 4 Objectives of the study 5 General objective 5 Specific objectives 5 Research questions 5 Significance of the study 6 Brief Methodology 7 Scope of the study 8 Limitations of the study 8 Organisation of the study 8CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10 Introduction 10 Motivation and employee performance 10 Definitions of motivation 10 Forms of Motivation 12 Theories of Motivation 14 Content theories of motivation 14 Process theories of motivation 19 The reinforcement theory of motivation 22 Factors that motivates employees 23 Performance 26 The effects of motivation on employees‟ performance 28 Monetary motivators versus non-monetary motivators 30 Conceptual framework 33CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE 35 Introduction 35 Research methodology 35 Research design 35 Research strategy 36 Sources of Data 37 Primary Sources 37 Secondary Sources 38 Population, sample size and sampling technique 38 Research Instrument 40 Questionnaire development 40 Interview guide 41 Data collection procedure 41 Analysis of data 42 Profile of Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate 45 Background Information about the Municipal Education Office 45 BECE Pass Rate 45 WASSCE Pass Rates 46CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 47 Introduction 47 Quantitative Analysis 47 Background information of respondents 47 Gender of respondents 47 Age bracket of respondents 48 Highest professional qualification 48 The number of years served in the teaching service 49 Current rank of respondents 50 Factors that Motivate Employee 50 Nature of work 50 Promotion in the organization 51 Opportunity for Advancement 52 Responsibility 53 Appreciation for work done 53 Salary 54 Working Condition 55 Relationship with Superior 56 Relationship with peers 56 Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among Employees 57 Recognition at workplace 57 Authority to make necessary decisions in order to complete assigned tasks 58 Growth opportunity 58 Management style 59 Regular on the job training 60 Monetary incentives adequate 60 Determinants of employee performance 61 Qualification 61 Experience 62 Working Environment 63 Compensation package (financial and non-financial) 63 Job security 64 Support for other colleagues 65 Age and health condition of employee 66 Retirement and other benefits 67 Effects of motivation on the Employee Performance 67 Nature of work 68 Promotion in the organisation 68 Opportunity for advancement 69 Responsibility 70 Appreciation for work done 70 Salary 71 Working Conditions 72 Relationships with superior 72 Relationships with peers 73 Does motivation has effect on your performance 73 The effect of motivation on employees performance (Regression Analysis) 74 Model summary 74 Qualitative Analysis 77 Factors that Motivate Employee 78 Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among employee 80 Determinants of Employee Performance 81 Effects of motivation on the employee performance 83CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 85 Introduction 85 Summary of findings 85 Background information of respondents 85 Factors that motivate employees 86 Factors that serves as satisfaction or dissatisfaction among employees 86 Determinants of employee performance 86 Effects of motivation on the employee performance 87 Conclusions 87 Recommendations 88 Areas for further research 89REFERENCES 90Appendix 1 96Appendix 2 101LIST OF TABLES3.1 Distribution of respondents of questionnaires/interview 40 Gender of respondents 48 Age bracket of respondents 48 Highest professional qualification 49 The number of years served in the teaching service 49 Current rank of respondents 50 Nature of work 51 Promotion in the organization 52 Opportunity for Advancement 52 Responsibility 53 Appreciation for work done 54 Salary 55 Working Condition 55 Relationship with Superior 56 Relationship with peers 56 Recognition at workplace 57 Authority to make necessary decisions in order to complete assigned tasks 58 Growth Opportunity 58 Management style 59 Regular on the job training 60 Monetary incentives adequate 61 Qualification of employees 62 Experience of employees 62 Working Environment 63 Compensation package (financial and non-financial) 64 Job security 65 Support for other colleagues 66 Age and health condition of employee 66 Retirement and other benefits 67 Nature of work 68 Promotion in the organization 68 Opportunity for advancement 69 Responsibility 70 Appreciation for work done 70 Salary 71 Working Conditions 72 Relationships with superior 72 Relationships with peers 73 Does motivation has effect on your performance 74 Model summary 74Coefficients 74CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION Background of the StudyThe Ghana Education Service (GES) is responsible for spearheading the nation Education vision by laying a good foundation that would facilitate the development of human resource in Ghana. Since the sector has a direct investment in human capital which is the instrument for improving the productive capacity of societies as much as their political, economic and technological development is concern, there is the need for a good foundation. When children are educated poverty is reduced, the fertility rate is lowered, health is improved, and the national status is raised coupled with higher productivity leading to higher income (Shultz, 1974; Cohn, 1979; Noor, 1981). Furthermore education enhances the status of women; promote adaptability to technological changes and forges national unity (Juster, 1975).The future development of the nation (Ghana) therefore hinges more than ever, on the capacity of the nation and individuals to acquire relevant knowledge in literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills and attitudes. This is so since education is the keystone to national development and quality basic education is the foundation. It is significant to note that the availability of well-motivated teachers is central to improving student‟s achievement. Even with the best strategy in place and an appropriate organizational architecture, an organization will be effective only if its members are motivated to perform at a high level. Leading is such an important managerial activity that it entails ensuring that each member of the organization is motivated to perform highly and help the organization to achieve its goals. When managers are effective, the outcome is a highly motivated workforce. A key challenge to managers of organizations both small and large is to encourage employees to perform at a high level (Jones et al, 2000).According to Pate (1998) the study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. The basic underlying question is „why do people do what they do? Kovach (1980) states that despite numerous studies done on motivation, managers still are not close to understanding employees‟ motivation than their colleague more than fifty years ago. Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated. Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position. Even though money occupies a major place in the mix of motivators, money alone cannot motivate employee well to work unless it is coupled with other non-monetary motivators (Frey and Osterloch, 2002).Performance is an evaluation of the results of a person‟s behaviour. It involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a job. Motivation is only one factor among many that contributes to an employee‟s job performance. All thing being equal, one would expect a highly motivated teacher or an officer would deliver high-quality teaching or service than those poorly motivated teacher or officer. All things however, are not always equal because so many factors affect performance – factors such as personality, the difficulty of the task, availability of resources and working conditions. To attain high levels of performance as an employee and manager, you must be sure that you and your employees have the ability, motivation and the resources to meet objectives. When performance is not at the standard level or above, you must determine which performance factor needs to be improved and improve it (Lussier, 2005).Studies on motivation depicts that there are several ways to motivate employees. These are known as theories, which can be divided into two categories. They are the content theories and the process theories. The content theory focus on what motivates employees and it waspropounded by eminent writers such as Maslow (1946), McClelland (1988) and Herzberg (1968). Vroom (1969), Adams (1965), Locke and Latham (1990) are the proponents of the process theories and they focus on how motivation occurs. Reis and Pena (2001) question whether motivating people to work in the 21st century with theories conceived during the past 100 years are likely to be infeasible. They conclude that the core message is that managers should reconsider the out-dated motivational patterns utilised to maintain role performance in organisations and adopt a fresh motivation formula for the 21st century based on friendship, work and respect. However, Chartered Management Institute (2001) checklist maintains that these theories are still valid today. Even though the two theories are complementary, they are in a way opposite and their differences leads others to conduct further studies on motivation. This led to a number of ways through which employees could be motivated to increase performance. Several writers such as Roche and Mackinnon (1970) and others such as Mayfield et al (1998) suggest that leadership styles and freedom given to employees are significant in motivating employees. Luthans and Stajkovic (2000) and Armstrong and Murlis (2004) held the view that recognition can be used to motivate worker to perform well whilst Oldham and Hackman (2010), Lawler (1969) argued that job design has an important role to play in employees behaviour.Considering many approaches to motivation and how difficult it is to find or identify one that solely motivates workers, the study seek to determine whether motivation have effect on employees‟ performance. Statement of the ProblemThe Ghana Education Service is responsible for the co-ordination of the approved national policies and programmes relating to pre-tertiary education. The service is made up of teachers and non-teaching supporting personnel in pre-tertiary educational institutions in the public system; managers of educational units and their supporting staff; and other persons that may be employed for the service (Ghana Education Service Act, 1995 [Act 506]).Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently. Teacher motivation is inadequate for instance; meagre salary compared to other institutions workers, no accommodation for teachers and they have to struggle for accommodation after completing school, and sometimes have to commute long distances to work.These and other factors are causing absenteeism, lackadaisical attitude and dissatisfaction among the GES workers. The rate of turnover of GES workers is increasing at the alarming rate and those staying are embarking on frequent strikes for better conditions of service (Asunafo North Municipal Education Annual Performance Report, 2013).Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate. Objective of the StudyThis section deals with the general objective and specific objectives of the study. General objectiveThe general objective of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on Employees Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate. Specific objectivesThe specific objectives are as follows:1. To identify factors that motivates employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.2. To identify factors that serve as dissatisfaction among workers in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.3. To determine the employees performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate.4. To assess the effect of motivation on the employees performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate. Research QuestionsThis section deals with the formulation of the research question that will help to achieve the objectives of the study. They are:1. What are the factors that motivate employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?2. What are the factors that serve as dissatisfaction among employees in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?3. What determines the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?4. What is the effect of motivation on the employees‟ performance in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate?5. In what ways could motivation be improved upon in Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate? Significance of the StudyThe study examines the effect of motivation on employees Performance at the Brong Ahafo Education Directorate. The motivation for the study was prompted by the low level of concentration on employee motivation as compared to the employees of other organizations which have caused an acute shortage of qualified teachers at the basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level due to high migration to other sector, that is high rate of teachers‟ turnover (GNAT Report, 2013). The study will therefore serve as a contribution to the body of existing literature related to motivation system in Ghana Education Service. This will serve as a guide to researchers and to provide data upon which further studies could be concluded.The research findings and results that will be reported in this study will provide the management of Ghana Education Service with more reliable and scientific way of motivating and evaluating the level of their employees‟ performance.The finding and results of this study will provide the policy makers like government agencies such as the Ministry of Education, Ghana Education Service Council, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning with invaluable insights and a more reliable guide to monitoring the impact of the operations of the Ghana Education Service in the country.The study will provide the stakeholders like Government, Church, Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), Past Students‟ Association, School Management Committee (SMC) Assembly Members etc., invaluable information that will allow them to provide useful suggestions to the improvement in teaching and learning in Ghana.Although the study is limited to Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate in the Brong Ahafo Region, other districts/municipals, regions or the entire nation, together with countries of the West African sub-region with similar conditions will find the results useful in their education planning and delivery programmes. Brief MethodologyThe study was guided by a mixed methodology approach which consists of both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. To this end, questionnaires and interviews were used in eliciting data from two Hundred and twenty one (221) comprising 214 questionnaires and 7 interview guides representing 10% of the total population of the target group i.e. the Municipal Education Office staff and teaching and non-teaching personnel of basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level respectively. A content analysis technique was employed to analyse and interpret the qualitative data (interviews). The quantitative data was however analyse using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Scope of the StudyThe study area, Brong Ahafo Education Directorate has 27 districts/municipals. The study however focussed on the employees of Asunafo North Municipal Education Directorate that is the teaching and non-teaching personnel of basic and 2nd cycle (Senior High School) level respectively. Limitation of the StudyThe research had certain limitations and therefore was confined to Asunafo North Municipality of the Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana due to lack of time and adequate financial resources. Also, time frame for the completion of this research was a major limiting factor which affected the conduct of a comprehensive research on the effect of motivation on the output of employees of Ghana Education Service. Furthermore, the non-co-operative attitude of some of the respondents reduced the number of people interviewed than the researcher had originally intended. Finally, inadequate financial resources and lack of readily organised data was a limiting factor, however, in spite of these constraints; all effort was made to come out with thorough research. Organization of the StudyThis work is organized into five chapters as shown in figure 1.1. Chapter one deals with the introduction. This takes a look at the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, brief methodology, scope of the study, and limitations of the study as well as the organization of the study. Chapter Two deals with reviewing existing literature that primarily deals with discussions and review of literature related to the concepts of the research. The third chapter describes the methodology adopted for the study. This includes the research design, area of study, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, administration of the questionnaire, and data analysis procedure. Chapter Four comprises compilation, analysis and discussion of data collected from the fieldwork. Chapter Five also looks at the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations.Figure 1.1 Organisation of the study.