Librarians’ performance is meeting information needs of users by providing quality services and resources. Library automation afford great chance for library personnel to get and use required information to enhance their impactiveness and efficiency. The use of electronic information resources assists librarians to meet the current level of users’ requirement for information and services which promotes the performance of librarians.  Librarians’ performance seems to be below the expectations of its users with the rate and current level by which users demand and want information. The aim of this study therefore, was to find out the extent to which library automation and electronic information resources’ use affected the performance of librarians in , Nigeria.

The survey research design was used. The population of the study was 349 librarians from 22 school libraries in Nigeria. Total enumeration technique was employed. A self-constructed questionnaire titled “Library Automation, Electronic Information Resources’ Use and Performance of Librarians questionnaire” was used to collect data. 272 copies of the questionnaire were returned giving a return rate of 80.1%. The reliability coefficient for Library Automation was 0.76, Electronic Information Resources’ Use was 0.78 and Librarians’ performance was 0.81. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and multiple regression.

Findings revealed that out of the six library services identified in this study, five were fully automated and 90% of the school libraries have automated their services. More than 90% of known electronic information resources like TEEAL, electronic journals, e-books, AGORA, social network, JSTOR, HINARI, AJOL, EBSCOHOST and OARE were available in the libraries. More than 60% of electronic information resources available were used by library personnel and users in various libraries. From the findings, librarians’ performance had been increased by 70% as a result of automated library and electronic information resources’ use in schoolsin Nigeria. The study showed that there was significant and positive relationship between library automation and librarians’ performance in school libraries (r =.372, p<.01). Electronic information resources’ use had significant and negative relationship with performance of librarians (r =.-126, p<.049). Library automation had greater contribution to performance of librarians (β = .391, p(.000)<.05)  than electronic information resources’ use (β = .044, p(.505)>.05)

This study concluded that most school libraries in Nigeria were fully automated which allowed librarians to increase the quality of services rendered. Both the library service automation and electronic information resources’ use were determinant factors of library performance in schoolsin Nigeria. This study recommended that school library managers need to further enlighten both the library staff and library users on the importance of library automation and use of electronic information resources by organizing workshops, seminars and conferences in order to meet the current information needs of users.




1.1Background to the Study 

1.2       Statement of the Problem 

1.3       Objective of the Study

1.4Research Questions 


1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Significance of the Study

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms


2.0      Introduction

2.1Librarians’ Performance

2.2Automation of Library

2.2.1Barriers to Library Automation and Some Library Automation Software

2.2.2Advantages of Library Automation

2.3Automation of Library and Librarians’ Performance


2.4Electronic Information Resources’ Use

2.4.1Availability and Use of Electronic Information Resources

2.4.2    Classification of Electronic Information Resources

2.5Library Automation and Electronic Information Resources Use

2.6Electronic Information Resources Use and Librarians’ Performance

2.6.1Factors Influencing the Electronic Information Resources Use in the Library 

2.7Theoretical Framework

2.7.1Diffusion of Innovation Theory Relevance of the theories to the Study

2.7.2Theory of Organizational Development of the Theories to the Study

2.8Conceptual Model

2.9      Appraisal of Literature


3.0  Introduction

3.1  Research Design

3.2  Population 

3.3  Sample size and sampling Technique

3.4  Research Instrument

3.5  Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.6  Method of Data Collection

3.7  Method of Data Analysis





4.1Demographic Information of Respondents

4.2Research Questions 











We use automated library to denote a library in which the collections of library materials are primarily on paper but in which the library procedures have been computerized. Libraries are very record-intensive: Not only is each title different but, for many purposes, the records needed for library operations must necessarily be concerned with individual copies of each title. A circulation system must know precisely which copy of which volume of which edition of which title was borrowed by precisely which borrower and when it is due back. Attributing the loan to some other borrower will not do; nor will substituting the return of some other document, even by the same borrower, be acceptable as a discharge of the loan. Acquisition records need to show precisely how many copies of a given work were ordered from which bookseller and which, if any, have so far been received. A library not knowing which titles it already has (and in how many copies) could not function efficiently. Serials records contain minute details of copies of issues, indexes, binding, and invoices in order to assure that each set is complete and properly acquired, bound, and paid for. Library records, then, must be specific to individual copies. In general it is desirable that library record-keeping be automated for three reasons:

1. Much of the work involves the accurate updating of records in files. The tasks involved are generally tedious, repetitive, mechanical in nature, and lend themselves to computerization, even though the records may be complex and arranged in complicated ways.

2. Automation is likely to improve cost-impactive performance by increasing accuracy, by reducing the rate of increase in costs in labor-intensive activities, and by increasing impactiveness. It should become possible to do some tasks more thoroughly than levels of staffing usually permit with manual procedures, such as the regular claiming of unsupplied issues of periodicals, or by doing things that cannot in practice be done in paper files, notably searching for combinations of characteristics.

1.2      Statement of the Problem       

Library automation and electronic information resources’ use are essential for today’s library operations and services.  However, the ability of libraries to perform their job impactively and efficiently is influenced by their capacity to use automated library and electronic resources. Librarian’s performance appears not to meet up with the current level of users’ demand for information and the rate at which the users want to get information. The use of electronic resources in libraries may affect their daily operation with the aim to promote librarian’s performance and enhance productivity. As the library helps in providing information sources, there is need to make electronic information resources available for users, at all time. Currently, some libraries in Nigeria may not have sufficient skills and competence on the electronic information resources’ use. Lack of library automation and electronic information resources’ use has adverse impact on the quality of service delivery of the library which affects their performance also. It is in the light of this that this study sets out to investigate the library automation and electronic information resources’ use as they affect librarian’s performance in schoolsin Nigeria.

1.3     Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to investigate how library automation and electronic information resources’ use affect librarian’s performance in schoolsin Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

1. identify the level of library automation in schools in Nigeria;

2. investigate the level of availability of electronic information resources in schools in Nigeria;

3. ascertain the frequency of use of electronic information resources available in schoolsin Nigeria;

4. determine the librarian’s performance of school libraries in Nigeria;

5. determine the impact of library automation on student's performance in schools in Nigeria;

6. find out the impact of electronic information resources’ use on librarian’s performance in schools in Nigeria.

7. identify the challenges of automating library services and use of electronic information resources in schools in Nigeria.

1.6 Research Questions 

To achieve the above objectives, the following research questions were posed.

1. What is the level of library automation in schools in Nigeria?

2. How available are electronic resources in schools in Nigeria?

3. What is the frequency of use of electronic resources in schools in Nigeria?

4. What are the impacts of library automation on librarians and students in Nigeria?

5. What are the challenges of automation of library and electronic information resources use in schools in Nigeria?

1.7 Hypotheses

This study is guided by the following hypotheses and were tested at 5% level of significance.

H01: There is no significant relationship between library automation and librarian’s performance in schools in Nigeria.

H02:    There is no significant relationship between liabrary automation and the performance of students in schools in Nigeria.

1.6     Scope of the Study

The study covered the six states in Nigeria, which are Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo. The study focuses on automation of library services which includes acquisition, cataloguing, circulation and serials, electronic resources’ use both subscribed and open access databases and librarian’s performance among school libraries in Nigeria. The study concentrates on the task performance of librarians in their daily job which includes quality of work done, quantity of work performed, communication skills, decision making, timeless and ability to attend promptly to request from library patrons, relationship with coworkers, time, creativity, efficient and impactive use of library resources. The study considers the schoolslibraries that have automated their library services and electronic resources.  

1.7   Significance of the Study

Library automation and electronic information resources are used to promote quality of service, level of operation, library user satisfaction and increase productivity of library. Library automation and use of electronic information resources in the library would serve as motivating tools for the librarians in discharging their duties in an impactive and efficient way. The findings of this study would help librarians and the policy makers who are involved in the operation of library services and enhance research work.  It is assumed that the research findings would promote the application of library automation and electronic information resources’ use in the academic library.  The research findings would also reveal to the librarians that library automation and electronic information resources’ use are not only for library users or as part of services but also as tools or technology that would enhance their performance and high productivity. 

1.8   Operational Definition of Terms 

Electronic information resources: These are defined as those information materials that users access electronically via a computer network from inside the library or remote to the library. Electronic resource is any information basis that the library offers access to in an electronic format.

Electronic resources availability: This is the electronic information resources and services which are made available for the library users which help the library workers to discharge their duties efficiently.

Performance: This is the act of performing or completing an action, task, or function.

Automation: This is the use of devices or computer to optimize throughput in the production of goods and delivery of services. This is the use of electronic systems to control a specific task in order to improve consistency and impactiveness.

Library Automation: This is the process of employing computers or electronic devices to do traditional library operation like acquisition, serials, and circulation.

Librarian’s performance: This is the ability of a library workers to carry out statutory functions which are based on the library units and development as well as library's objectives. It is also the ability of a library to meet library users’ demand as well as achieving the library goal and objectives.

Electronic information resource use: This refers to correct or suitable application of information in electronic formats to carry out their job function in school libraries in , Nigeria.

Library Services: There are the activities provided by library to enable users meet their information needs.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing