EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF BOKO HARAM IN THE NORTHEASTERN PART OF NIGERIA
This study was embarked upon to ascertain the threat of Boko Haram insurgency to the peace and stability of Nigeria. Boko Haram has committed a lot of atrocities particularly to the north eastern part of Nigeria. So many lives have been lost and properties worth millions of naira destroyed. The fight against Boko Haram insurgency by government has taken different dimensions ranging from declaration of state of emergency in the most affected state, forming of civilian joint task force along with military men to tackle book Haram. This effort by the government has been yielding positive results in the fight against insurgency. Book Haram threatens the peace, stability and the nationhood of Nigeria by ceding part and declaring it a caliphate. This declaration prompted the government to move in with full in the fight against Boko Haram insurgency. The study cover north eastern part of Nigeria which has been the focal point of Boko Haram activities. This study adopts the survey method. Data was collected using the questionnaire and analysed with Pearson Product Movement Correlation (PPMC). It was found that Boko Haram has a positive relationship with poverty and illiteracy. Also the threat pose by Boko Haram to the peace and stability of Nigeria is significant. Bases of these findings, it is recommended that the government should continue its onslaught against Boko Haram, sponsors and sources of funding of Boko Haram should be traced within a view to bringing the culprit to book. Government should adopt an effective measure to ensure local police force and home security guard. This arrangement must evolve from the local communities, believing that every village or town is secured, the nation in turn be secured.
1.1 Background of the Study
The magnitude of terror disasters over the years shows that terrorism and insecurity is a global problem that requires immediate attention.
The response was a fight against such defined groups that perpetrate oppressive, violent and murderous act on the general populate. Islamic radicalism is fingered as responsible for the attacks and seen as a threat to peace, security and prosperity of global community (Faith, 2013). The world view about insecurity and terrorism was shattered by September 11, 2001 attack and the subsequent declaration of “War against Terror” by the US; the issue of terrorism was pursued to the forefront of international political discourse.
Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unpresented level of insecurity. This made national security threat to be a major issue for the government and this has prompted huge allocation of national budget to security. In order to ameliorate the incident of crime, the federal government has embarked on the criminalization of terrorism and other related matter by passing the anti terrorism Act in 2011, with the lingering security challenge and the inability of the security apparatus of the government to guarantee safety and the security country, peace and security of the nation will be in jeopardy if not checked. Adugu (2012) and Alufera (2011) are of the view that the effort of the government has not yielded enough positive result in the fight against insecurity. With the recent happening, the government has double its effort towards the fight and the result has been positive.
Book Haram as a terror group has behind a lot of attacks in Nigeria. from onset, the attacks have been on government properties, institutions and agencies. Book Haram activities emerged from mere attacks on government institution, agencies to seceding of parts of north east Nigeria and declaring it an Islamic caliphate. This led to the government to declared state of emergency in north east states particularly Yobe, Borno, and Adamawa states to curb their activities and to exterminate Boko Haram insurgency.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem of insecurity has continued to pose a serious threat to the corporate existence of Nigeria. it has also elicited a lot reaction by different scholars in different directions. The Boko Haram insurgency in particular allegedly constituted a damning threat to the peace and security of Nigeria through its activities, the worsening menace of poverty is believed to have contributed to the escalation and radicalization of the sect.
Book Haram has committed a lot of atrocities to Nigeria society particularly to the north eastern part of Nigeria. the group started as a sect of Islamic religion that preaches against western education. The group turns violent in 2009 when their leader Yusuf Mohammed was killed. The group started attacking security agencies particularly the police. The group resulted to burning and attacking of government properties, institutions, agencies, burning of churches, adoption of people, and using suicide bombers to attack marketand crowded places, sacking of villages. All these activities led to the cripple of economy activities in the north eastern part of Nigeria. The height of activities of Boko Haram is the declaration of Islamic caliphate in the north east. The states mostly bin by activities of Boko Haram in Yobe, Borno and Adamawa religious fundamentalism and Islamic revivalism is believed to have played a part in the activities of Boko Haram. Faith (2013) pointed that Islamic radicalism has been fingered as responsible for the attack, threat and the growing insecurity in the country. Religious extremism by Boko Haram has put Nigeria in a great security risk. The fight against the insurgency by the government has taken a positive dimension and the war is been won gradually.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study has the following objectives summarized below:
1. To ascertain if poverty has contributed to the emergence and radicalization of Boko Haram sect.
2. To examine the role of unemployment as its relate to the steady rise of insecurity in Nigeria.
3. To indicate if security institutions particularly the police saddle with internal security has done little which led to the escalations of Boko Haram insurgency?
4. To indentify the impact of religion in the emergence and radicalization of Boko Haram.
5. To investigate the role illiteracy in the emergence, escalation and radicalization of Boko Haram activities.
1.4 Research Questions
Aligning with the objectives above in 1.3 the below questions are made;
1. Has poverty contributed to the emergence and radicalization of Boko Haram sect?
2. Does unemployment contribute to the worsening of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
3. Has the failure of the Nigeria police to curtain the activities of Boko Haram at the initial stage led to the escalation of Boko Haram insurgency?
4. To what extend has religion contributed to the emergence of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
5. Has illiteracy contributed to the emergence and radicalization of Boko Haram?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated for empirical analysis in course of this study.
1. H0; there is no relationship between poverty and the emergence, radicalization of Boko Haram sect.
H1; there is relationship between poverty and the emergence, radicalization of Boko haram sect.
2. H0; the danger pose by Boko Haram to the peace and stability of Nigeria is not significant.
H1; the danger pose by Boko Haram to the peace and stability is significant.
3. H0; there is no relationship between illiteracy and the emergence, radicalization of Boko Haram sect.
H1; there is relationship between illiteracy and the emergence, radicalization of Boko Haram sect.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Before embarking on any research, the purpose of the research must be in mind. This study will be of great benefit to number of groups in Nigeria, for example, policy makers, students, academicians and the general populace.
This study will enlighten the government to double its efforts in the fight against insecurity in the country. The government will be better equipped with the tenet of the group and as such to know how best to deal with them.
This study will add to the existing body of knowledge on the activities of Boko Haram. It could serve as a point of reference for those writing project on similar topic in the nearest future. The limited empirical analysis in the study of Boko Haram, this research will help to close the gap.
This study will enable the people to be better equipped with the understanding of the group, their principles and belief. This will decadent their knowledge base concerning the group.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study will cover the activities of Boko Haram in the northeastern part of Nigeria. The response for empirical analysis will be from the affected states. Also the Hausa and Kanuris communities in Akwa Ibom State will be considered.
This research will have the challenge of administering questionnaire to all members of the sample. Also a low level of cooperation from the respondents is anticipated. The cost of travel to the affected states will hinder this study to a great extend.
1.8 Definition of Concepts
Insecurity: It is the state of being subject to danger, vulnerability, fear and anxiety.
Terrorism: This is the premeditate use or threat of violence by an individual or group to cause fear, destruction or death especially against unarmed target, property or infrastructures, in the state to compel those in authority to respond to their demand.
Boko Haram: Boko Haram came from Hausa/Arabic languages. Book means animist, western or non-Islamic education. Haram on the other hand is an Arabic term manning “forbidden or sacred” put together. It means western education is forbidden..