PEACE EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR INTEGRATION INTO SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN RIVERS STATE
The main aim of this study was to develop a Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State. Specifically, the study sought to: determine objectives of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme, determine content for Peace Education selected for Peace Education, find out methods for teaching Peace Education, determine instructional materials for teaching the content of Peace Education, determine the evaluation activities for assessing the achievement of the objectives of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme. Seven research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted R and D design. It was carried out in five phases as follows: Phase i: Collecting data for Peace Education curriculum, Phase ii: Development of Peace Education curriculum, based on objectives, content, methods of teaching, instructional materials and evaluation activities, Phase iii: Validation of the Peace Education curriculum, Phase iv: Testing of Peace Education curriculum using Peace Education Test (PET) and Phase v: Revision of Peace Education curriculum based on information and comments from phases iii and iv. The population was made up of 650 subjects involving seven members group discussion, Social Studies and Home Economics lecturers, Social Studies and Home Economics students, senior staff of Ministries of Women Affairs, Social Work and Rehabilitation and Youth Education and Development, Secondary School Home Economics and Social Studies teachers and Home Management students. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select samples from large groups while no sampling was adopted for small groups.Total sample size was 495. Questionnaire respondents were 450. The following instruments were developed and used for data collection, namely: Focus Group Discussion Guide (FGDG), Peace Education Questionnaire (FEQ), Peace Education Curriculum (PEC), Peace Education Validation Questionnaire (PEVQ) and Peace Education Test (PET). The PEQ, PEC and PET were face validated. The reliability of Peace Education Questionnaire (PEQ) was tested using Cronbach Alpha reliability test to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded an overall reliabilitycoefficient of 0.87, also, the reliability of the 50 multiple choice questions (Peace Education Test) was determined to be 0.91 using Kuder Richardson formula 20 (KR20), while Kendall’stau_b was used to determine the reliability of the Peace Education Curriculum which was rated by three experts and a reliability value of 0.71 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions while Analysis of Variance was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings included 42 objectives of Peace Education, 37 contents were selected for Peace Education curriculum, 26 methods of teaching Peace Education, 35 instructional materials for teaching of Peace Education and 28 evaluation activities for assessing the attainment of Peace Education curriculum objective. The findings also showed that the developed Peace Education curriculum wan appropriate and effective. The findings of the study from the hypotheses showed that there was no significant difference in the mean responses of the respondents on the objectives of the Peace Education curriculum, contents selected for the Peace Education curriculum and the methods for teaching Peace Education in senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State. Findings from Focus Group Discussion (FGD) revealed killing, kidnapping, armed robbery among others as peace problems in Rivers State and that, the effects of peace problems among others include unsafe life and driving away of foreign investors. The findings also revealed that youths are the major perpetrators of the problems and that, it was appropriate to develop Peace Education curricuilum for integration into senior secondary Home Management programme in Rivers State. Based on the validation of the curriculum by experts, the results of FGD and hypotheses tested, it was recommended among others that, Rivers State government should organize and fund adequately, serminars and workshops on the integration of Peace Education curriculum into senior secondary school Home Management programme. Seminars and workshops should also be organized for youths on Peace Education by the Rivers State government and that, parents should start early enough to teach their children how to live peacefully with one another.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURE xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 11
Purpose of the Study 13
Significance of the Study 14
Research Questions 16
Scope of the Study 17
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 19
Conceptual Framework 20
⦁ Peace Education 20
⦁ Home management 34
⦁ Behaviour modification 38
⦁ Curriculum development 40
⦁ Concepts in curriculum development 50
Theoretical Framework 90
⦁ Peace theories 91
(I) Kant’s theory of democratic peace by Immanuel Kant – 1900s 91
(II) Theory of perpetual peace by Charles-Irenee Castel de Sant Pierre -18th
(III) A synthetic approach to transcend by Johan Galtung – 1930 93
⦁ Learning theories 94
(i) Stimulus-Response Theory by Ivan Pavlon (1902) 94
(ii) Operant conditioning by B, F, Skinner (1904) 95
(iii) Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura (1963) 95
(iv) Field- Cognitive Theory by Wolfgang Kohler (1925) 95
⦁ Curriculum models 96
(a) Linear Models by: 96
(i) Wheeler (1949) 99
(ii)H. Taba (1962) 99
(b) Cyclic Models by: 99
(i) D. K. Wheeler (1967) 99
(ii) Nicholls and Nicholls (1972) 100
Related Empirical Studies 101
Summary of Literature Review 109
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 112
Design of the Study 112
Area of the Study 114
Population for the Study 115
Sample and Sampling Technique 116
Instruments for Data Collection 117
Validation of the Instrument 118
Reliability of the Instrument 118
Method of Data Collection 119
Method of Data Analysis 121
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 122
Research Question 1 122
Research Question 2 125
Research Question 3 128
Research Question 4 130
Research Question 5 132
Research Question 6 135
Research Question 7 135
Hypothesis 1 136
Hypothesis 2 139
Hypothesis 3 141
Findings of the Study 143
Findings from Focus Group Discussion 152
Discussion of Findings 154
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATIONS 164
Restatement of the Problem 164
Summary of Procedure Used 166
Summary of the Study 169
Findings of the Study 171
Implication of the Study 173
Limitation of the study 174 Suggestions for Further Research 175
A : Population Distribution by Ministries 194
B : Population Distribution By Institutions 195
C : Population Distribution by School Boards 196
D : A Request for Validation of Instrument 197
E : Letter to Respondent 200
F : Questionnaire 201
G : Focus Group Discussion Guide 208
H : A Cross Section Focus Group Discussants with the Moderator at the
I : Researcher Serving as Secretary to FGD Session 212
J : Group Photo of Focus Group Discussants After FGD Session 213
K : A Request for Validation of Peace Education Curriculum 214
L : Peace Education Validation Questionnaire 215
M : A Peace Education Curriculum 216
N: Peace Education Test 232
O : Peace Education Test Answers 237
P : Peace Education Test Result 238
Q : Researcher Supervising Students Writing Peace Education Test 239
R: Home Management Students Writing Peace Education Test 240
S : Reliability of Instruments 241
T : Descriptive Statistics 250
U: SS I First Term Home Management Scheme of Work 268
V :Population Distribution Table279
LIST OF TABLES
1. Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents on instructional
objectives formulated for Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior
secondary school Home Management programme123
2. Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents on the content selected
for Peace Education curriculum for integration into Senior
Secondary School Home Management Programme126
3. Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents on the method to be
used in teaching Peace Education to senior secondary school Home
Management students 129
4. Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents on the materials to be
used in teaching Peace Education in senior secondary school Home
Management programme 131
5. Mean and Standard Deviation of respondents on evaluation activities to be
utilized in Assessing the attainment of instructional objectives of Peace Education
in senior secondary school Home Management in Rivers State 133
6. Mean score of validates on extent of apropriateness of Peace Education
7. Mean and Standard Deviation scores of students taught using developed
Peace Education curriculum136
8. Analysis of Variance test for the mean ratings of Home Economics
lecturers, social studies lecturers and senior staff of Ministries of
Women Affairs on objectives of Peace Education in senior secondary school
Home Managenet programe Rivers State 137
9. Post Hoc Tests showing level of significance of Home Economics
lecturers, Social Studies lecturers and senior staff of Ministry of
Women Affairs on objectives of Peace Education curriculum developed
for integration into senior secondary school Home Management
programme in Rivers State138
10. Analysis of Variance test for the mean ratings of Home Economics
lecturers, undergraduate Home Economics students and senior staff of
Ministry of Youth Development on content selected for
Peace Education Curriculum for integration into senior
secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State140
11. Analysis of Variance test for the mean ratings of Social Studies
lecturers, undergraduate Social Studies students and senior staff of
Ministry of Social Work on methods of teaching Peace Education
in senior secondary school Home Management
programme in Rivers State 142
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1: A Diagrammatical Presentation of Conceptual Framework 89
Background of the study
Peace is a state of tranquility, calmness, harmony and freedom from fear of violent conflicts among individuals and groups. Peace is a condition whereby there is togetherness and co-existence among individuals and groups. Yaro and Saleh (2005) defined peace as a condition that involves co-operation and constructive social relationships and is dependent on the satisfaction of such basic human needs. Peace is an important attribute to successful living, development and progress. It brings joy, happiness, hope and understanding. Peace is a source of harmonious living. Dompin, Dyel and Paul (2005) opined that peace is a vital tool for social, political, educational and economic development.
Despite the importance of peace in the life of individuals and its roles in the development of the society, there have often been reports of violent conflicts and crises in the media for some decades now and the rate has been on increase in recent time. There have been cases of terrorism, kidnapping, bombing, hijacking, assassination, etc, both internationally and locally.
These had resulted to loss of lives and properties and had impacted seriously on the wnrld economy. According to Eze and Osuji (2013) the tragic loss of human life is one of the most obvious results of terrorism. In the same vein, nations spend billions of money reconstructing and replacing properties damaged by terrorists.
In Nigeria, there have been cases of violent conflicts, crises, terrorism, stealing and ritual killingsamong others for decades now. Examples of crises and terrorism in Nigeria are the post independent civil war of 1967, bumbing by the Boko Haram groups and kidnapping. Odejobi and Anesina (2009) observed that there have been cases of inter-ethnic crises such as crises between the Hausas and Yorubas in Lagos with a spill over effect in Kano, cases of ethno-religious riots are many in Northan part of Nigeria. Good examples of other crises in Nigeria include the Tivs and Jukins tribal wars of 1991-1993, Katat and Hausa Fulani in Kafanchan, 1988, the Ijaw and Isekiri clashes of 1991 and 1992, Isekiri and Urhobo, Ogoni and Andoni, etc. There are many cases of boundary disputes, such as ones between Modakeke and Ife, Ipoti and Ilori in Ekiti State, among others to mention but a few.
There are also conflits and crises resulting from management and control of oil resources. Eze and Osuji (2013) opined that oil related insurrections were born in Nigeria led by Adaka Boro, that, the Ogoni uprising of the late 1980s and the Khana declaration by the Ijaws in 1998 were follow-ups. The near terrorist activities of the militant groups such as the Niger Delta People’s Voluunteer Force (NDPVF) and the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) are well known. Danladi (2014) noted that they have killed scores of security officials, damaged oil facilities and infrastructures and shut down oil production. They have also taken oil workers hostage. Hundreds of people have been killed in the violence, which has also resulted in the displacement of thousands and the distruction of hundreds of properties. Eze and Osuji (2013) observed that, violent in the Niger Delta alone is estimated to have killed about 1000 persons a year between 1997-2004 and the rate is daily on the increase.
Niger Delta Geo-political zone is made up of six states, namely, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, Delta, Edo and Rivers States. Among the Niger Delta states, Rivers State being the major oil producing state in Nigeria has suffered the worst of terrorism, violent conflicts and crises, etc. Kidnapping in Rivers State is not just keeping the victims hostage for ransom as it is done in other Niger Delta states and other parts of the county. The victims are tortured, raped and in some cases killed. The kidnapping is not limited to foreign oil workers and politicians but includes Nigerian oil workers, civil servants, and entire public including the aged, pregnant women and little children. In fact, it is as bad as kidnapping men of God, even a Rev. Father has been kidnapped and Rev. Sisters raped in a town called Omoku in Rivers State. As a result of this, more than 80% of the population of the people in Omoku in Rivers State has left the town to seek refuge in other places. Before the intervention by the state government, buses with passengers travelling from Omoku to Port Harcourt were being hijacked and entire passengers kidnapped. One of the buses was set ablaze with all the luggages belonging to the victims. Passengers travelling on the sea were not left out. In some cases all the victims (both males and females) tortured, raped and thrown out of the boats leaving them stranded and made away with the boats. This led to the death of a pregnant woman who was travelling to a town called Bonny in Rivers state. She was raped by all the members of the group of the kidnappers. In some cases the boats with all the passengers taken to unknown destinations. Kidnapers have gone to schools to kidnap both principal and the Vice, teachers and school children. They have traced people to the church, kidnapping them on their way home. They have kidnapped pastors inside the church. In fact, there is no person, place or time of the day that is safe when it comes to issue of kidnapping in some areas in Rivers State. Most victims spend months in the clinics and hospitals after their release while many have lost their lives through much rape and torture. There are persons who are threatened by kidnappers to be sending to them a fixed amount of money every month or else they will be kidnapped and are warned never to involve security agents else they will be killed.
Mass and indiscriminate killings have also claimed many lives in Rivers State. These happen when cult groups sometimes decide to attack each other. Many innocent people have lost their lives either directly or through stray bullets. Some people are killed and beheaded. Pregnant women klled and their bellies torn open. Hundreds of those perpetrators have also lost their lives in this process as well as in the hands of the security agencies. People are living in fear in some of the towns and villages in Rivers State, particularly, in Ahoada East and Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Areas of Rivers State. This has led to some of the towns and villages in the local government areas being deserted. Foreign investors have left the state, the economy and development of the state are seriously affected.
However, efforts have been made by governments, (federal and state), past and present, None Governmental Organizations, individuals and oil companies in form of amnesty programmes, skill acquisition programmes, formation of Niger Delta Development Commission, among others to curb the problems with much money involved, yet the problems continue. Danladi (2014) stressed that all these efforts have failed despite the huge amount of money spent.
Moreover, the perpetrators of these problems are youths who are looked upon as nation builders and future leaders. Failure in efforts made so far does not mean that all strategies for curbing peace problems have been exhausted. There is need to use education as an alternative strategy, which could also be cost effective.
Education is the greatest investment that a nation can make for quick development of sociological and human resources. Bebebiafiai (2002) opined that, education is the most fundamental and vital aspects of social engineering and the harnessing of human resources.With the current social problems perpetrated by youths in Niger Delta, generally, and in Rivers State in particular, there is need to reconsider how education can be used to curb the situation, especially, at the secondary school level. This is a very important level of education in the life of the students because it is the level when decisions for future life are taken. It is also a period when the children are in their adolescent stage of development in which different types of behaviours are formed. This is the period students need to be acquainted with the implications of violent conflicts and creating of crises situations. Students at this level of education need to understand their roles as youths in the society and for them to acquire skills in leadership and conflict resolution which will help them resolve conflicts without violent. Albert (2004) opined that, the country has lost too much in the past as a result of violent conflicts. The type of education needed for curbing violent conflicts is Peace Education. Peace Education is indeed needed in Nigeria and in Rivers State in particular. It is believed that Peace Education can change the mindset of the youths towards violent conflicts and help them think positively which will enhance peaceful co-existence in the state.
It is, however, a known fact that elements of Peace Education are featured in some school subjects such as Social Studies, Moral education, Civic education, Home Economics education, Christian Religious Knowledge, among others. These elements of Peace Education are taught as parts of those subjects they feature in and therefore, to meet the objectives of those subjects. Those elements of Peace Education are not taught to meet the objective of Peace Education. Therefore, the students have no in-depth knowledge of rudiments of Peace Education, hence do not acquire the skills required for conflict resolution and peaceful co-existence. This calls for Peace Education curriculum as a part of school programmes. This will make Peace Education to become a school subject of its own with its objectives which will enable students have in-depth knowledge of peace and develop skills and attitudes necessary for peaceful co-existence in the society.
Peace Education simply means helping the learner to develop skills that are necessary for achieving understanding, tolerance, goodwill, and value diversity (Udensi, 2005). Peace Education is the type of education that essentially inculcates discipline in people. It also teaches the expectations of citizens in general, and more specifically, the duties, roles, obligations, activities of individual leaders and followers (Odejobi and Adesina, 2009). Peace Education is the type of education that provides skills for enhancement of inter-personal relationship among people. In Peace Education, one goal is to develop students’ awareness of the elements that promote peaceful living and harmonious relations among groups, schools and professional communities, and states and non-states at the national and global levels (Nzelum, 2005). Peace Education has to do with building a culture of peace through learning (Albert, 2004). Culture of peace, according to Albert (2004), refers to a cluster of attributes and behavioral patterns that enable peacemaking behaviour to become rooted in a society. Peace Education will help studentsin Rivers State acquire skills and attitudes that will help them live peacefully and maintain peace in their respective families, communities and the larger society. Peace Education is the type of education that will help students shun violent conflicts and embrace peace. There is, therefore, need for development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into school programmes.
Development, according to Ngwoka and Eze (2010) is described as the gradual and systematic manifestation of characteristics which enable the organism to function in a progressively higher level. Gajere and Gwani (2005) observed that it is a term that, deals with positive improvement in all facets of human endeavours. Development is now to be thought of as a process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined area over a defined period to manage and induce positive change; that is to predict, plan, direct, understand and monitor change and reduce or eliminate unwanted or unwarranted change (Kolo and Ashituebe, 2004). In whatever way development is concerned of, it is believed that, it is mostly about positive transformation in society’s concrete effort to grapple with its problem and to maintain the tempo of effects meant to improve the quality of living in the society (Kolo and Ashituebe, 2004). They added that the focus of development is societal change. That, the fact all the same remains that, development, whether as process, strategy or outcome covers the political, social, cultural, economic and educational sectors of societal transformation. For Peace Education to be a functional part of school programme which will lead to positive change in the society, its curriculum has to be developed for integration into the school programme.
Curriculum is an essential means of education (Dandali, 2006). Nnachi (2009) opined that curriculum could be considered as a programme of education constructed as a guide to the teacher and in respect of procedures, content and context of the course of study under the guidance of the school for its effective teaching and learning. Nnachi (2009) also defined curriculum as a guiding programme for effective teaching and learning. Ogunyemi (2009) referred to curriculum as planned and unplanned experiences which learners receive in the process of their formal or semi-formal education for the purpose of becoming rounded persons who can make meaningful contributions to the betterment of their society and the world. Curriculum is an important instrument for effective implementation of educational programmes. Azikiwe (2009) posited that, without the curriculum, teaching-learning process will be un-coordinated for the achievement of meaningful outcomes. By implication, without the curriculum, a useful educational programme will be meaningless.Using Peace Education effectively to curb peace problems in Rivers State can be possible if Peace Education curriculum is developed for integration into school programmes.
Integration is joining different parts into a whole. It can be defined as peaceful co-existence and interdependence among individuals or groups of individuals. Integration embodies a state of fusion or harmonious groups interaction and interrelation of the various functions of persons and groups to make them an identifiable single entity with common attributes, goals, purposes and objectives (Edegbe and Eweka, 2007). Development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into Home Management programme will make Peace Education an integral part of the educational programme.
Home Management is one of the subjects studied at the senior secondary school level in Nigeria. Home Management is an area of study in Home Economics that teaches the art of utilizing human and material resources to meet family needs. Home Management is a process of using family’s resources to meet family’s needs and goals (Anyakoha, 2015). It involves every aspect of family living. The focus of Home Management among others, are family relationship, Child Development, Consumer Education and family and Community Health. Home Management programme is a planned learning experiences aimed at guiding learners to become useful members of the family in particular and the society at large. Family is the smallest, important and powerful unit of the society. Important and powerful in the sense that family is the foundation of the society. The foundation of the society is laid in the different families that make up the society. If the society must be good, families must produce good members and if the society is bad, it is the other way round. This is so because family members make up members of the society. In other words, one of the aims of Home Management is to shape the behavioural partterns of the learners for a better society. Therefore, Home Management is an important subject area for building a better society through modification of the behaviour of the learners.
Behaviour is something a person does that isseen, heard, counted, or captured- say in a snapshot or a home video (Borich, 2011). According to Vikoo (2003), behaviour is a means of communication.Modification is the process or the action taken to change something for better or to improve the condition of something from bad to good or from good to better (Hornby, 1996). Behaviour modification, as its term implies, focuses on changing or modifying behaviour. Behaviour modification can be said to be the process of changing the behavioural pattern of an organism from undesirable to desirable so that the organism can function effectively in its environment (Borich, 2011).Behaviours of youths can be modified for them to function effectively in the society.
With the current peace problems in Rivers State, there is need to inculcate peace culture instudents through Peace Education as a means of modifying their behaviours for better. It is also noted that Peace Education can form an important component of Home Management programme because Home Management is concerned with human relationships and will be an appropriate subject area to use to inculcate peace culture in the students. Therefore, there is need to develop Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State.
Secondary school education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage (FRN, 2004), section 5, sub-section 20. Children in senior secondary school are in their adolescent stage which is a critical stage in human development. These children need adequate guidance and a form of value system to help them become productive citizens. Secondary school students are the nation’s human resources, who need to be managed, guided and developed to acquire knowledge; skills and attitudes that will help them become useful, productive and efficient future leaders.
If Peace Education curriculum is developed for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State, it is believed that students will be able to understand and acquire skills and attitudes to live in peace within their families and the communities, hence, embrace peaceful co-existence. By the end of their secondary education, the students should be able to understand their positions and roles as youths in the society. It is also believed that, this will help to modify the behaviours of the students by changing their mindsets and inculcating in them the understanding that being violent is not the right way to make it in life. As schools continue to turn out students with the right mind sets that embrace peace and shun violent, there will be assurance that peace will be restored in Rivers State in the near future.
However, in order to ensure a quality and acceptable Peace Education curriculum, different groups of people who are involved either in youth or peace issues were brought in to the study. It was envisaged that the opinions of these groups in the areas of objective, content, methods of teaching, teaching materials and evaluation activities will ensure quality Peace Education curriculum. These groups are Home Economics lecturers, secondary school Home Economics teachers, final year Home Economics (Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and undergraduate (UG)) students, Social Studies (SOS) lecturers, secondary school SOS teachers, final year SOS students (NCE and undergraduates), Senior Staff of Ministry of Women Affairs, Senior Staff of Ministry of Youth Development (Youth Education and Counselling Department) and Senior Staff of Ministry of Social Work and Rehabilitation, all in Rivers State.
Those in Home Economics have acquired knowledge of Home Management. The secondary school teachers, NCE and UG students, when graduated will be those to teach Peace Eucation in secondary schools. Those in SOS have acquired knowledge and skills in problem resolution. Danladi (2014) said that Social Studies education is a school subject that provides opportunities for citizens to acquire relevant learning experiences that equip them for the resolution of social problems. The Senior Staff of the Ministry of Youth Development are concerned with youth affairs in the areas of their education and counseling. Those in Social Work and Rehabilitation work directly with the public and the society to help citizens solve their social and personal problems and youths are likely to be their major clients. While Senior Staff of the Ministry of Women Affairs have been having series of workshops and campaigning on peace and conflict resolution strategies in the South-South states. It was believed that all these groups involved in this work were qualified and could provide the necessary information needed for development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme Rivers State.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of youth restiveness in the South-South zone of Nigeria is worst in Rivers State.The perpetrators have taken extra steps which have caused untold hardship and problems of peace to the habitants. Kidnapping is now carried out indiscriminately at any time and any place. Men of God are not spared. Even a Rev. Father who is supposed to be highly respected was kidnapped and Rev. Sisters raped. Kidnapping is no longer done for ransome alone. The victims suffer severe torture and rape (both males and females) so much that they are always rushed to the clinics and hospitals immediately they are released. Many of the victims have lost their lives in the process.
At some point in time in some towns, cult groups will decide to carry out attack suddenly which has also resulted to indiscriminate killing of people. Some people are killed and beheaded. Pregnant women killed and their bellies opened up, mothers raped in the presence of their children, fathers forced to have sexual intercourse with their female children and sons with their mothers at gun point. Assassination which is viewed as having political undertone is another serious problem faced by the people. If the assassins break into any house, every one met there is killed. Many friends and visitors have lost their lives through this way. Thousands of youths who supposed to be assets to the state are killed either by their opponents or by the security agents, even much lives of the security agents have also lost. Apart from the agony, trauma and pains people pass through and loss of lives and properties, many oil and private companies have folded up and workers rendered jobless, businesses are crumbled and people are living in fear. Presently, four banks have been relocated from Omuku town because of the insecurity situation in the town because many of their staff and managers have been kidnapped. The peace problem is really impacting negatively on the economy and development of the state in which strategic measures need to be taken.
Ironically, the perpetrators of these acts are the youths of the state. Youths play very important roles in the development of any society. They are looked upon as builders and future leaders of the society. In fact, the rate of restiveness of the youths in Rivers State is alarming. If adequate measures are not taken to curb these problems, the future of Rivers State will be terrible and as a major oil producing state in Nigeria, one keep wondering what will become of Nigeria as a nation in decades to come.
However, much has been done by the government, oil companies and others in forms of amnesty programmes, skill acquisition programmes, and mass employment among others as means of curbing these problems in Rivers State. The efforts so far made do not seem to work out as expected. It was believed that these youths are ignorant of what they are doing and therefore the future youths (students) need to be guided against such. Education could be used as a means to help the students realize the implications of what is happening presently. It was also believed that Peace Education would enable students (future youths) understand their roles in the development of the society which could help to change their mind sets towards violent conflicts and terrorism. Peace Education which can provide the students with knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for conflict resolution would be ideal as a measure for curbing the problems in future. This study, therefore, was aimed at developing Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme for behaviour modification of students in Rivers State in order to avoid the occurrence of present peace problems in future.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to develop Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management in Rivers State. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. determine instructional objectives of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State;
2. identify content for Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State;
3. find out methods for teaching Peace Education in senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State;
4. identify instructional materials for teaching the content of Peace Education in senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State;
5. determine evaluation activities for assessing the achievement of the objectives of Peace Education in senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers Stat;
6. develop a Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State;
7. validate the developed Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State; and
8. test the effectiveness of the developed Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to the students in the secondary schools, the youths, the parents, the communities, the state, Nigeria and future researchers.
The findings of this study will be beneficial to the students because through their involvement in Peace Education, students will acquire skills and attitudes that will enable them relate well with one another within the school environment and the general public, thereby become law abiding citizens. With the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired from Peace Education, students will be able to avoid involving themselves in unnecessary crises in the school rather they will be able to channel their grievances properly thereby maintaining peace in the school environment. This will make the students to be productive. The findings of this study will also help students to relate well with their family members and members of their respective communities which will lead to healthy living both in their families and the communities. This will enable the students to contribute positively to the development of both their families and the state.
The result of the study will enable youths understand their expectations in leadership of the state. The result will enable the youths acquire skills that can help them avoid involving themselves in activities or situations thatcan result to untimely death of citizens who would have been important assets for the development of Rivers State. The youths will understand why human rights should be respected and embrace inter-personal relationship among people and groups. The findings of this study will help youths realize the importance of peaceful living and peaceful co-existence thereby, resist any attempt by anyone or group of people to use them for destruction of properties and lives. The youths will learn to be productive rather than being destructive and which will help them become assets to Rivers State in particular and the nation at large.
The result of the study will also be beneficial to the parents because peace will reign in their families and the communities. Parents will no longer lose their children prematurely through their involvement in anti-social activities. The population of highpertensive parents resulting from youth problems will reduce. These parents will be healthy and will be able to participate in the development of their communities and the society at large.
The result of the study will also be useful to the communities. Members of different communities will relate well with one another. This will result to development of the communities.The rate of communal crises will be minimized.The youths will engage in community development instead of destroying properties of one another. There will be development in the communities which will result to healthy relationship and inter-communual co-operation and co-existence.
The finding of this study will restore peace in Rivers State. Investors will be attracted to the state. Both the oil and private companies that folded up as a result of the peace problem will return and resume productions. Employment opportunities will be available for the youths in the state. There will be peaceful co-existence among communities in Rivers State and properties belonging to the state will be reserved. The economy of the state will improve which will result to the development of the state.
Nigeria as a nation equally will benefit from the finding of the study. If peace is restored in Rivers State and full production of oil is resumed, the economy of Nigeria will be restored. Foreign investors will be attracted to Nigeria. Nigeria will experience peace.
Future researchers will benefit from the study as the finding will serve as a reference material to them. Researchers may likely carry out similar research in other states of Nigeria.
The following research questions guided the study:
1. What are the instructional objectives that can be achieved in Peace Education which can be included in the development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
2. Whatcontent of Peace Education can be included in the development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
3. Which methods can be used in teaching Peace Educationwhich can be included in the development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
4. What instructional materials can be used in teaching Peace Education which can be included in the development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
5. What evaluation activities can be employed for assessing the attainment of Peace Education instructional objectives by Home Management students which can be included in the development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary schools Home Management programme in Rivers State?
6. How do experts rate the developed Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
7. What is the effectiveness of the developed Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme in Rivers State?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
H01. There is no significant difference among the mean responses of Home Economics lecturers, Social Studies lecturers and Senior Staff of Ministry of Women Affairs on objectives of Peace Education selected for development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme for behaviour modification of students in Rivers State.
H02. There isno significant difference among the mean responses of Home Economics lecturers, undergraduate Home Economics Students and Staff of Ministry of Youth Development on content of Peace Education selected for development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme for behaviour modification of students in Rivers State.
H03. There is no significant difference among the mean responses of Social Studies Lecturers, undergraduate Social Studies students and Staff of Ministry of Social Work on methods of teaching Peace Education selected for development of Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management programme for behaviour modification of students in Rivers State.
Scope of the Study
The study was carried out to develop Peace Education curriculum for integration into senior secondary school Home Management for behaviour modification of students in Rivers State of Nigeria. The study was carried out in Rivers State. The following were also carried out in the study: validation of Peace Education curriculum, testing effectiveness of Peace Education curriculum. The groups involved in the study included Home Economics lecturers in both Federal College of Education (Tech.) (FCET), Omoku and Ignitius Ajuru University of Education (IAUE), Port Harcourt (PH), all in Rivers State, final year Home Economics and Social Studies undergraduate students in both FCE(T), Omoku and IAUE, PH, Rivers State, final year Home Economics and Social Studies NCE students in FCE(T) Omoku, Rivers State. Also involved in the study were Senior Staff of Ministry of Women Affairs, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Senior Staff of Ministry of Youth Development, PH, Rivers State, Senior Staff of Ministry of Social Work and Rehabilitation, PH, Rivers State, secondary school Home Economics teachers, secondary school Social Studies teachers, and senior secondary school Home Management students, all in Rivers State..