NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC  PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM, ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH                                                                             ABSTRACT:                    Complementary foods were formulated using sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish. The nutrient composition, functional properties and organoleptic attributes of the formulated complementary foods were investigated. The different flours were combined in the ratios of; 70:20:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, of sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish respectively. Cerelac, a commercial sample served as control. Porridges were prepared from the composite blends for organoleptic evaluation. Standard methods were used to analyze the composite flours. The protein content of African yam bean and crayfish flours complemented the sorghum protein and improved the nutritional quality of the formulated food. The result of the functional properties showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in both bulk density and viscosity. Sensory evaluation revealed that the porridge from the control was preferred over the others. Among the blends, the porridge made from 70:20:5 sorghum / African yam bean/crayfish was preferred over the others. The study showed that composite blends from sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish are nutritionally adequate and possess good functional properties which are required for the preparation of complementary foods for infants.TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page  Declaration ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------  iApproval Page -----------------------------------------------------------------------------  iiDedication------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iiiAcknowledgement-------------------------------------------------------------------------ivTable of contents----------------------------------------------------------------------------vAbstract---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------viCHAPTER ONE    Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1AIM AND OBJECTIVE    CHAPTER TWO Literature Review---------------------------------------------------------------------------4COMPLEMENTARY FOODSSORGHUMHEALTH BENEFITS SORGHUM (United States Grain Council 2010)AFRICAN YAM BEAN (AYB)DOMESTICATION, CULTIVATION, AND THE CULTURAL PLACE OF AYB.POTENTIALS OF AFRICAN YAM BEANLIMITATIONS IN AYBCRAYFISHGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CRAYFISHUSES OF CRAYFISHHEALTH BENEFITS OF CRAWFISHMORE FACTS ABOUT CRAYTFISHCHAPTER THREEMaterials and Methods------------------------------------------------------------------25Procurement of raw materials: Preparation of formulated complementary food:Analysis of sample:PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONDETERMINATION OF FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES STATISTICAL ANALYSISRAW AND PROCESSED MATERIALS;CHAPTER FOURResults and Discussion-------------------------------------------------------------------36Procurement of raw materials: Preparation of formulated complimentary food:Analysis of sample:PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONAsh contentCrude protein contentCrude fat contentCrude fiber determinationCarbohydrate contentsDETERMINATION OF FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES STATISTICAL ANALYSISRAW AND PROCESSED MATERIALS;DISCUSSION OF RESULTS    CHAPTER FIVEConclusion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------40Recommendations------------------------------------------------------------------------40    References----------------------------------------------------------------------------------41Appendix------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47PROXIMATE ANALYSISFAT CONTENTASH CONTENTPROTEIN CONTENTCRUDE FIBRECARBOHYDRATESFUNCTIONAL PROPERTIESVISCOSITY    LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLESFig. 1: flow diagram for the production of formulated complementary Food--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25                                                                Table 1:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------    36Table 2:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------    36Table 3:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------    37CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONIn developing countries like Nigeria, complementary foods are mainly based on starch tubers like cocoyam, sweet potato or on cereals like maize, millet and sorghum. Children are normally given these staples in the form of gruels that is either mixed with boiled water (Igyor et al., 2011).     Sorghum is an important food crop grown on a subsistence level by farmers in the semi arid tropics of Africa and Asia. It is the principal food crop grown in Northern Nigeria (Zakari and Inyang, 2008). Sorghum like other cereals is predominantly starchy and remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small _holder farmers in many countries FAO (1999).     African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an underutilized legume crop that is predominantly cultivated in Western Africa. It produces nutritious pods, highly portentous seeds and capable of growth in marginal areas where other pulses fail to thrive (Enwere, 1998). It has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demands of the people in this region.     Crayfish, also known as crawfish, freshwater lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the super families Astacoidea and parastacoidea (Hart 1994). The greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in Southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambraridae (Tennessee Aquatic Nuisance 2007). A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, and oxygen rises from underground springs (Thompson et al., 2007).     Since many African mothers use gruels made from sorghum as complementary foods, for their infants, due to their inability to afford the cost of nutritional superior commercial meaning foods, this work was conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish locally formulated into flour blends.AIM AND OBJECTIVETo determine the nutrient composition, functional and organoleptic properties of complementary foods from sorghum, roasted African yam bean and crayfish.





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