“The Effect Of Two Teaching Methods On Secondary School Students Performance In Biology In Enugu Educational Zone” is a very vital factor in school decision since it influences their returns, affect their values in educational sector. The research  was carried  out to ascertain and test the application and relevance of two teaching method, of some School in Enugu State, factor affecting the two teaching method, the effect of  the application and  relevance of two teaching method, and its impact on the selected organization. The study came out  the following.    a)The teachers are not using the appropriate method in teaching biology.    b)The facilities are not available in teaching process. The  researchers therefore concluded that two teaching method are  not preplanned from the research study  and should be enhanced upon to make a good head way and clear future.


Title page         –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Approval page          –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Certification      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Dedication        –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Acknowledgment –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Abstract    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

Table of Contents      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vii


1.1   Background of the study    –      –      –      –      –      1

1.2   Statement of the  Problem         –      –      –      –      –      5

1.3   Purpose of the Study                –      –      –      –      –      6

1.4   Significance of the Study   –      –      –      –      –      6

1.5   Scope of the study    –      –      –      –      –      –      7

1.6   Research Question    –      –      –      –      –      –      8


2.1   Discussion method in Teaching –      –      –      –      9

2.2   The Principles  for effective Discussion Teaching        13

2.3   Values of Discussion in Teaching       –      –      –      15

2.4   The Demonstration Method in Teaching     –      –      18

2.5   Teaching Material for  Biology    –      –      –      –      21


3.1   Design of the study   –      –      –      –      –      –      24

3.2   Area of the  Study     –      –      –      –      –      –      24

3.3   Population of the  Study    –      –      –      –      –      25

3.4   Sample and Sampling Technique       –      –      –      –      27

3.5   Method of Data Collection –      –      –      –      –      28

3.6   Method of Data Analysis    –      –      –      –      –      28


Quasi Experiment and Data Analysis –        –      –      –      29





CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1.    Background of the Study:There has been a consistent poor achievement in Biology as shown by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) annual reports of (1990-1995). Many scholars have therefore tried to find the ways and means of improving students achievements in Biology. They have, therefore, looked at many factors and carried out some emperical studies on the effect of these factors on performance of students.The factor considered in the present study is the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students performances in Biology. The methods being considered are the discussion and the demonstration methods. These  two methods encourages co-operative learning between the teacher and the learners.  Johnson and Johnson (1997) were of the opinion that co-operative learning experiences promoted higher achievement among the students. Although most studies have stressed on students’ participation and interaction as being very important factors of achievement, there may, however, be other alternative contributing factors and teacher’s method of teaching is definitely one of them.Jonassen DH(2006) states that pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. Teaching method therefore, is the act or science of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Science is an activity oriented subject. The way it is thought is important in helping the students acquire basic scientific knowledge, skills and attitude to solving different problem in life. Biology being a science subject, therefore involve the teacher using methods that will give the students opportunity to be actively involved.It is a well-known fact that no skilled teacher ever uses just one method of teaching Shield (2002) pointed out that good teachers  follow no one method, instead he/she uses whatever methods and materials that seems to be best for the particular combination of individual situations.This research work is focused mainly on discussion and demonstration methods of teaching. Discussion method involves the discussion of a biology topic, issue or concept by groups of students or the entire classroom.Trusted (1997) asserts that the discussion method could be teacher centered, task centered or student centered. The teacher opens the discussion by asking one of the prepared questions and the students go on to discuss while he moderates.Walker (2003) says that in discussion method, students are given chance to react while the teacher who has the answer in mind allows the students to think about the question.According to Wirschner (2006), discussion method is a teaching method that includes questioning which is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of question to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught.  Testing is another application of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned in order to identify if a student has learned in the material.According to Mayer (2004), demonstration are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a science class. Demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact, as by reasoning or showing evidence.Over the past years, these have been an unsteady progress rate in biology for secondary school students as regards internal and external examinations. Measuring academic performance can occur at multiple levels and serves multiple purposes.For instance, the classroom teachers after conduct formative and summative tests, to evaluate students mastering of course content and provide grades for students and parents. This relative achievement of secondary school students is an example that has internal and external impact depending on the method adopted by the teacher. It is in the light of the above that the need to examine the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school student performance in biology in Enugu Education Zone can not be over emphasized.

1.2  Statement of the Problem.         The popular opinion in Nigeria today is that the standard of Education has fallen short of what it should be. This fall in the standard of education is perceived by many as the inability of the teachers to impact knowledge to the learners, the way they will understand and write well in examinations. Reports by examination councils in Nigeria have disclosed the recurrent and endemic failure of students in both internal and external examinations especially in Biology (WAEC) annual reports; (1990-1995). Agbo (2010) says that teachers no more show commitment as they see themselves as most “measure up”. Also  Layi (2004) found out that teacher’s lateness to work, absenteeism and poor attitude to work encourage indolence and contribute to poor performance among students. The problem of this study is therefore to investigate the effect of two teaching methods- Discussion and demonstration, on secondary school students performance in Biology.

1.2.    Purpose of the Study:The main purpose of this study is to investigate into the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students performance in Biology in Enugu Education Zone.Specifically, the study will examine:-1)    Whether teachers posses the skills of using the two methods in teaching.2)    If there is any significance difference in students performance in using the two teaching methods in biology.3)    Whether the facilities are available for the two teaching methods.

1.3.    Significance of the StudyThe finding of this study will be of benefit to the teachers, students and curriculum planners. The study critically discusses extensively the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school students in biology, the consideration of academic performance of students in biology.This findings will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in biology that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers.The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties. The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of curriculum.The overall significance is that when all the stake holders in this  study benefit from the findings, the learning of biology will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examinations.

1.4   Scope of the Study:         The study will concern itself with the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school students performance in biology which will be carried out in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.  Biology teachers in the public secondary schools in the zone  will be used for the study. A multiplicity of variables come under the topic, but the researchers have  decided to focus on the following variables:- These includes, the use of demonstration and discussion methods in teaching biology. The skills involved in the use of the two teaching methods, the facilities available for the two teaching methods.

1.5   Research questions:         The following research questions have been formulated to guide this study:-1)    What are the skills involved in the use of discussion and demonstration methods in teaching biology?2)    Is there any significance difference in students performance in using the two teaching methods in biology?3)    Are the facilities available for the two teaching methods?



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