THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA FROM 2009-2018: A STUDY OF BORNO STATE
The study was intended to examine the socioeconomic implications of Boko haram insurgency in Nigeria from 2009-2018. This study was guided by the following objectives; to evaluate the operations/activities of Boko Haram in Borno State, Nigeria, to examine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the socio-economic development of Nigeria and to make recommendations for the way out of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research was applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data were analyzed using the chi-square statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentages. The respondents under the study were 100 residents of Maiduguri in Borno state, Nigeria. The study findings revealed that Boko haram the insurgency has a significant impact on the socio-economic development of Nigeria; based on the findings from the study, the effort of the Nigerian government to foster inter-religious dialogue should be intensified and Boko Haram sects should be persuaded to be active participants in the collaborative effort to ensure peace and unity in the country with a view to enthroning favorable environment for socio-economic activities.
1.1 Background of the Study
Democratic government was installed in Nigeria in 1999 after more than 16 years of military dictatorship. The aspiration of the populace was that with the coming of civilian government the dividends of democracy will spread to all nooks and crannies of Nigeria. However, their hopes have been dashed by the recent events in Nigeria. Fifteen years after civilian rule, the country’s security situation is pathetic that nobody in the country is safe from the attacks of terrorists, kidnappers, armed gangs and militants. Electoral and communal violence has also compounded the security situation that has made Nigeria unsafe for residence. The activities of the dreaded Islamic terrorist group, Boko Haram has been a great concern to the Nigerian government and the international community, as in up to date; Boko Haram has killed more than 10,000 citizens despite the security measure taken by the federal government of Nigeria to checkmate the heinous crime of the sect against humanity. It was in light of the failure of the government counter terrorism drive that made youths in the North-East part of the country to form a youth anti-terrorism movement called “Civilian JTF” to complement the effort of the government counter-terrorism strategy.
According to Alozieuwa (2012) as cited by Anyadike (2013) “the challenge posed by Boko Haram in Nigeria is not only about the viciousness of either its terror campaigns or the sect’s avowed mission to impose Islamic law on the country, but about the confusion regarding the exact cause(s) of the violence”. A lot of factors have been attributed to the cause of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria such as socioeconomic, political, and religious factors. However, Awojobi (2014) and Onuoha (2014) posit that the high-rate of poverty in Nigeria has made the youths enlisted in the ranks of Boko Haram foot soldiers which have to elongate the conflict since 2009. Most of the activities of the sect are concentrated in the North-East of Nigeria. Despite the state of emergency that was declared by the Federal government, the killings, bombings, and kidnappings of Boko Haram continue unabated. The activities of the Boko Haram sect have led to economic, social, and psychological implications in North-East Nigeria where the sect has a strong presence.
Globally, insecurity phenomenon has, indeed, posed the greatest threat to the present world order and has been encapsulated in the nine-letter word: “Boko Haram”. Boko Haram may have existed in diverse ways in the decades; even centuries that had gone by without much the threat to international security and global order, but the world of the twenty-first century appear to be witnessing a major scourge borne out of the phenomenon of Boko Haram. As noted by Nkwede (2013), the issue of security has remained topical and indeed constituted a serious course for concern not only to the private but also to public individuals in Nigeria. The security question has, in recent times, emerged as a key concept in Nigeria’s struggle for good governance, sustainable democracy, and development.
Apparently, the increasing spread of nefarious activities of Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and the destruction of lives and property is a growing concern that could not be wished away with a wave of hand (Alao. Atere, Alao, 2015 and Ogege, 2013).
Nigeria has all it takes to be great in terms of human and natural resources and wants to be one of the developed economies of the world and a leading nation in Africa by the year 2020. In order to actualize its dream, it sets the process, for the exploitation of resources and the attraction of indigenous and foreign investors. In spite of this laudable goal and an arrangement put in place, Nigeria has nothing substantial to show to that effect. It is in the news now that, most of its citizenry (victims of Boko-Haram) wallow in poverty and do not have access to the modern health care delivery system, pipe-borne water, quality education, and job opportunity and cannot afford three square meals daily. This unpleasant development or condition/situation is as a result of devastating attacks by the Boko-Haram insurgency on the people in the area.
The poor development status of Nigeria no doubt breeds an atmosphere of frustrated expectations and fosters widespread indignation on the part of those that are trapped in the vortex circle of abject poverty. The condition of hopelessness is further aggravated by impotent poverty eradication programmes and conspiratorial neglect by the Nigerian state. In the face of this predicament, individuals and groups respond differently depending on situational factors and capacity. These responses are crystallized and find expression in various shades of antisocial behaviors not only insurgency but might result in others like; armed robbery, and kidnapping among others.
In the midst of all these, Nigeria is confronted with daunting security challenges that needed a quick response from both government and the community leaders. The most disquieting insecurity/insurgency issue ever witnessed in Nigeria is the terror unleashed by Jama’atulAlhul Sunnah WalJama’aLidda’ Wati, Wal Jihad - a dreaded militant popularly known as Boko Haram (BH). The mass media present to the public a multi-varied image of dramatic acts of bombings with impunity and horrific portrayal killing, maimed, property, and businesses destroyed by Boko Haram. Thus, everybody, especially in the hotbed of terrorism (Borno State), lives in constant fear.
However, one begins to wonder how the people who live in the Northeast region go about their socio-economic activities talk more about people in Borno state.
Borno State has been known as a peaceful and crises free state and was popularly known as a “Home of Peace” because businesses were booming at its pick. However, since the emergence of Boko-Haram (BH) terrorist group, peace has no longer available.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria is experiencing its worst form of violence in history perpetrated by Boko Haram. Boko Haram group has been terrorizing the country, alleging that it is dissatisfied with the existing Nigerian State because of its western value orientations. The sect, therefore) intends to overthrow the government with a view to introducing an Islamic Sharia style government in the country. The zealots abhor the legitimacy of the secular Nigerian State because the sect regards it as ‘evil’ and does not deserve allegiance.
Since 2009 when Boko Haram initially started its insurgency and the aftermath of the killing of Mohammed Yusuf the leader of the sect, the activities of the sect have continued unabated despite the effort of the government to curtail the heinous crime of the sect, over 10,000 people have been killed by Boko Haram. The sect has use kidnapping and raping of women as a weapon of war. The poor are the most victims of the sect atrocities and the implications of the sect insurgency fall on the ordinary Nigerians. The purpose of this study is to examine the socio-economic implications of the sect in Borno State, Nigeria from 2009 – 2018.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study sought to examine the socio-economic implications of book haram insurgency in Nigeria from 2009-2018. Specifically, the study sought to;
1. evaluate the operations/activities of Boko Haram in Borno State, Nigeria.
2. examine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
3. Make recommendations for the way out of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the operations/activities of Boko Haram in Borno State, Nigeria?
2. What is the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on the socio-economic development of Nigeria?
3. What are the recommendations for the way out of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will be vital to the government, security apparatus, and the general public. It will also be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more about this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other studies.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: Boko Haram insurgency has no significant impact on the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between Boko haram insurgency and the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the Study
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or the information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted to the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Socioeconomic: Relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors.
Implications: The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
Insurgency: An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants)..
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