The incidence has been on the increase which gave rise to kidney damage urine retention and infertility.  This researcher to embark on a research study on Knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection as perceived by Health  workers in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna  State. 

Some of the objectives are to To determine the knowledge of urinary tract infection as perceived by Health Worker among women child bearing age in Kaura Local Government Area and to Assess the Knowledge and Causes of Urinary Tract Infection as Perceived by Health Workers among women child bearing age in Kaura Local Government Area. Multistage sampling techniques was used to choose respondents for this study, a self-structured questionnaire used in obtaining data, and data analysis was carried out using statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used in analyses the data.

Based on the findings research questions, the findings showed that the 310(79.5%) of the respondents strongly agreed that urinary tract infection is a common medical complain among women in their reproductive age, 345(88.5) said that it could be caused by micro-organism, 128 (32.8%) agreed that frequent sexual activities may cause UTI, 245 (62.8) believed that it exposes pregnant women to premature delivery and 309(79) of the respondents agreed that women wiping themselves from front to back can stop bacteria from entering into the anus and vagina, 329 (84.4) supported practice of personal hygiene as UTI preventive measure.

In view of the research findings, it is recommended that Sexuality education should be included in secondary school curriculum so that teenage girls could be exposed to causes, effects and prevention of UTI, Mothers should be specially educated on the nature and prevention of UTI,  Advocacies, campaigns and other orientation programmes should be carried out by relevant government and non-government agencies on UTI.


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement  iv

Table of contents v

List of tables viii

List of Figuresx

Abstract xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                

1.1 Background of the Study    1

1.2 Statement of the problem.      5

1.3 Objectives of the study    6

1.4 Significance of the study 7

1.5 Scope of Study 7


2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 Epidemiology 9

2.3 Behavioral Factors 12

2.4 Urinary Catheterization 16

2.5 Pregnancy 17

2.6 What are the symptoms of a chronic urinary 

tract infection 21

2.7 Effect of urinary tract infection 22

2.8 What are the types of chronic urinary tract infection  24

2.9 Who is at risk for a chronic urinary tract infection 25

2.10 How is a chronic urinary tract infection diagnosis 26

2.11 What are the complications associated with a 

chronic urinary tract infection  28

2.12 Prevention/control of urinary tract infection 28


3.1 Description of the study area  38

3.2 Study design 40

3.3 Study population 40

3.4 Sample size determination      40

3.5 Sampling Technique      41

3.6 Instrument of data collection 42

3.7 Validity of research Instrument 43

3.8 Reliability of research Instrument 43

3.9 Procedure for data collection 43

3.10 Method of data analysis 44

3.11 Ethical consideration 44


Presentation of result and data analysis 54

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                               

5.1 Discussion of finding                          56

5.2 Conclusion 57

5.3 Recommendation 58




Letter of Introduction 




Table 1: Distribution of respondents by age-group 45

Table 2: Distribution of respondents by gender 47

Table 3: Distribution of respondents by religion 50

Table 4: Shows the respondents on Causes of Urinary

Tract infection51

Table 5: Shows respondents on Effect of Urinary 

Tract Infections53

Table 6: Showing respondents on Preventive measures

against UTI54


Figure 4.1: Distribution of respondents by age-group 46

Table 2: Distribution of respondents by Marital Status 48

Figure 4.3: Distribution of respondents by professional qualifications 49



1.1 Background of the Study

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a pathogenic invasion of the ruthenium with resultant inflammation, encompassing a spectrum of upper and lower urinary tract disease. Infections are classified as complicated or uncomplicated, based on host anatomy and comorbidities, and range clinically from benign self-limited cystitis to urosepsis. UTI is the most common extra intestinal infectious disease entity in women worldwide, and perhaps one of the most formidable challenges in clinical practice given its high prevalence, frequent recurrence, myriad associated morbidities, and rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance. Achieving timely symptoms relief and infection control is often preventing morbidity, growth of resistant organisms, and recurrent infections are often difficult. The management of community-acquired UTI is plagued by a dearth of dependable culture data, accessible and updated local antimicrobial resistance patterns, and clear guidelines for treatment and prevention of recurrent UTI, as well as identification patterns of infection that warrant additional evaluation.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infection according to National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital(2016). Usually, the infection affect otherwise healthy person of any age most of this people are treated as outpatient. Untreated urinary tract infection (UTI) can have a devastating consequence on health.

Nevertheless it is difficult to accurately access the incidence of (UTI’s) because the situation is further complicated by the fact that accurate diagnosis depends on both the presence of symptom and positive in a urine culture. Women are significantly more likely to experience urinary tract infection (UTI) than men. Because nearly 1 in 3 women will have at least 1 episode of urinary tract (UTI) requiring anti-microbial therapy by age of 24 years almost half of all women will experience urinary tract infection during their life time. The urinary tract is a body drainage system for removing wastes and extra water which include two kidneys, two ureters a bladder and a urethra.  Anderson, et al (2004). 

According to Nicole et al (2001). The urinary tract infection can be define as the inflammation of the urinary tract due to infection by bacterial or virus that can extend from one urinary tract organ to the other. There is likelihood of more than one organ in the urinary organs to be affected at times and they are cause by micro organism which are too small to be seen with the necked eye which include fungi, virus, and bacteria. Bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection under normal circumstance bacteria that enters the body or the urinary tract are rapidly removed by the body before they cause symptoms.

However, sometimes the bacteria overcome the body defenses and cause infection in the urethra called Urethritis, a bladder is called cystitis. Bacteria may travel up to the ureter to multiply and infects the kidney. The kidney infection is known as pyelonephritsi.

Another cause for urinary tract infection is E.Coli. it causes 80% of urinary tract infection with staphylococcus being the cause in 5-10% rarely to be due to viral or fungal infections. With the aforementioned urinary tract infection is the second most common types of infection in the body occurring for about 8.1million visit to the health care provider each year.  Schaeffer et al (1999).

Urinary tract infection is a specific term used to denote anatomic site of infection, commonly the site is indicated as lower urinary or upper urinary tract infection. The infection of the lower urinary tract is known as simple cystitis (bladder infection) this may include painful urination or urge to urinate due to prostrate or epididymis (prostrate or epididymilitis) in men. While in a women there may be vaginal discharge and significant pain. The symptoms vary from mild to severe.

The upper tract infection is known as pyelonephritis (kidney infection) the infection include perinephric assess and internal abscess which may come with fever or flank pain, the upper tract infection are serious and difficult to eradicate than lower tract infection. They can be categorize as uncomplicated urinary tract infections and cystitis in patients who have no congenital or acquire structural abnormalities or neurologic dysfunctions including any UTI in pregnant woman are complicated.

This is cause by different micro-organism that can affect the urinary tract, must organism agent may be bacteria, viruses or fungi, escherichiacoli causes approximately 80% of acute infection in patient without urologic abnormalities or calculi. Other gram-negative rods especially proteus and kleblella and occasionally enterobacter account for a smaller proportion of uncomplicated infection. This organism increasing the recurrent of the infection and associated urologic, calculi or obstruction they play a major role in nosomial catheter associated infection. Scholes (2000)

Some women have three or more urinary tract infection in years while men are less likely than women to have a first urinary tract infection. But once a man has a urinary tract infection is likely to have another because bacteria can hide deep inside prostate tissue. Anyone who has diabetes or spinal cord injuries is at risk for urinary tract because of chronic use of catheter and in part because of voiding dysfunction.

Most urinary tract infection are serious problems such as chronic kidney infection that reoccur or last a long time can cause permanent damage to kidney including kidney malfunction kidney scar and acute kidney infection which can be life threatening especially if the bacteria enter into the blood stream. A number of measure have been confirmed to effect urinary tract infection frequency, including urinating immediately after intercourse, condoms type of underwear used, personal hygiene method used after defecating or weather the person typically bathes or showers, this may help the person in preventing the recurrent of urinary tracts infection including drinking lots of fluid can flush bacteria from the system (water is the best). Mazzulli, (2002). 

Therefore due to the aforementioned incidence of urinary tract infection that are on increase prompted the researcher to embarked on a study to ascertain the causes, effect and preventing of urinary tract infections.

1.2 Statement of Problem 

The researcher has discovered as perceived by the health worker that the area of study in the community of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. That most people are suffering from urinary tract infection especially women.

The incidence is drastically increasing due to recurrent attack of urinary tract infection which call for great concern looking at the causes and effect on the community. The researcher aim at creating awareness to the community on the causes, effects and preventive measure to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection.

1.3 General Objective

To determine the knowledge of urinary tract infection as perceived by Health Worker among women child bearing age in Kaura Local Government Area.

Specific Objective

Knowledge and Causes of Urinary Tract Infection as Perceived by Health Workersin Kaura Local Government Area.

1.4 Significance of Study

This research question shall contribute basically as guide to this research work.

1. What is the cause of urinary tract infection?

2. What are the effects of urinary tract infection?

3. What are the preventive measures in solving the incidences of urinary tract infection?

1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work is centered on an assessment of knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection as perceived by HealthWorkers among women  of child bearing age in some selected primary Health care centre in Kaura local government area of Kaduna State. 



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