FAMILY BACKGROUND AND STUDENTS’ SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


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FAMILY BACKGROUND AND STUDENTS’ SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IBIONO IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT  AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

The study examined Family Background and Students’ Social Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. Four variables (family size, fathers’ occupation, fathers’ educational level, and birth order) were selected within the context of the independent variable. Four null hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. The responding sample consisted of 120 Senior Secondary Two students, randomly selected from 6 public secondary schools in the study area. The basic design of the research study was the ex-post facto design. Two Research Instruments, Family Background and Students’ Social Behaviour Questionnaire (FBSSBQ) were used for the data collection. Mean, standard deviation, t-test, and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze and interpret the data. The findings of the study indicated that the examined family background variables were not statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study. The findings of this study have implications for both the home and the school.TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page    -    -    -    -    -    -    iDeclaration    -    -    -    -    -    -    iiCertification        -    -    -    -    -    iiiDedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    ivAcknowledgement    s    -    -    -    -    vTable of Contents    -    -    -    -    -    viList of Tables    -    -    -    -    -    xAbstract     -    -    -    -    -    -    xiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1    Background of the Study        -    -    -    -    11.2    Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -    -    31.3    Purpose of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    31.4    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    41.5    Hypotheses    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    51.6    Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    61.7    Scope of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    71.8    Limitation of the Study-    -    -    -    -    -    71.9    Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    7

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1    Theoretical Framework    -    -    -    -    -    92.1.1     Socialization Theory (Charles Cooley 1929)    -    -    92.1.2     Parental Attachment Theory (Bowlby 1980)    -    -    102.1.3   Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan 1985)        112.1.4   Maslow’s Motivational Theory (Abraham Maslow 1970)        -    -    -    -    13    2.2     Conceptual Framework    -    -    -    -    -    142.2.1     Concept of Family    -    -    -    -    -    142.2.2      Concept of Family Background    -    -    -    172.2.3   Concept of Family Size    -    -    -    -    -    182.2.4   Students’ Social Behaviour    -    -    -    -    202.2.5     Fathers’ Educational Level    -    -    -    -    222.2.6     Fathers’ Occupation    -    -    -    -    -    232.2.7   Birth Order    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    242.3     Review of Related Empirical Studies        -    -    252.4     Summary of Review of Related Literature    -    -    36

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS3.1    Design of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    383.2    Area of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    393.3    Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    403.4    Sample Size and Sampling Technique        -    -    403.5    Instrumentation    -    -    -    -    -    -    403.6    Validation of the Research Instrument        -    -    413.7    Reliability of the Research Instrument        -    -    413.8    Administration of the Instrument    -    -    -    423.9    Method of Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    42

CHAPTER FOUR:     DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND                         DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS4.1    Answer to the Research Questions    -    -    -    434.1.1  Research Question 1        -    -    -    -    434.1.2  Research Question 2    -    -    -    -    -    444.1.3  Research Question 3    -    -    -    -    -    454.1.4  Research Question 4        -    -    -    -    464.2    Testing of Hypotheses    -    -    -    -    -    474.2.1    Hypothesis 1    -    -    -    -    -    -    474.2.2    Hypothesis 2    -    -    -    -    -    -    484.2.3   Hypothesis 3    -    -    -    -    -    -    494.2.4   Hypothesis 4        -    -    -    -    -    504.3    Summary of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    514.4    Discussion of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    514.4.1    Family size and students’ social behaviour in         secondary     schools    -    -    -    -    -    524.4.2        Fathers’ occupation and students social         behaviour in     secondary schools        -    -    -    524.4.3    Fathers’ educational level and students social     behaviour in     secondary schools        -    -    -    534.4.4        Birth order and students social behaviour in     secondary schools    -    -    -    -    -    -    54 CHAPTER FIVE:    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                         RECOMMENDATIONS5.1    Summary of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    555.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    565.3    Recommendations     -    -    -    -    -    -    565.4    Suggestions for Further Research    -    -    -    57    References -    -    -    -    -    -    -    58    Appendix    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    63

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1    Background of the Study    Students’ behaviour in school is usually as a result of motivation that children get from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life. Family is a place in which children learn to interpret realities (Wary and Passman, 2006). Parents serve as significant interpreters to children for information about the world and children ability (Hall, Kelly, Hansen and Vulwein, 2006). Family influence is an important force in preparing students for their role in education. Students’ attitude is as a result of interaction with the family. Family background provides the basis on which a student’s career planning and decision making evolve. However, within each family, the level of involvement can very positively or negatively.    Ginther and Pollak (2001) maintained that the socio-economic status of a student’s parents affects his participation pattern of interactions, association and above all his personality. This assertion is also supported by Oakes (2001) who stated that socio-economic status of parents is an important predictor for students’ social behaviour. Such factors as the external environment of the family, occupation, and family earnings or income are more essential for the overall behaviour of the teenager.    Social behaviour is defined as all behaviour that influences, or is influenced by, other members of the same species. The term thus covers all sexual and reproductive activities and all behaviour that tends to bring individuals together as well as all forms of aggressive behaviour (Grant, 1963). Social behaviour is defined as interactions among individuals, normally within the same species, that are usually beneficial to one or more of the individuals.    Communication has also been shown to have an impact on promoting different types of social behaviour among students, such as pro-social and aggressive behaviour. For example, violence shown through the communication has been seen to lead to more aggressive behavior in its viewers1.2    Statement of the Problem    Due to the rapid societal development, behavioral problem have become a menace among students in Nigerian secondary schools system. Many students have dropped out of school and others opt to engage in criminal activities thus endangering the lives of the people living in their surroundings. The young generation no longer has role models since most of the young adults are unemployed and under the influence of social groups.  This study therefore seeks to determine how family background influences students’ social behaviour in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.1.3    Purpose of the Study    This study examines family background and students’ social behaviour in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study aims at the following objectives:1.    To examine the difference in students’ social behaviour in     secondary schools based on family size.2.    To determine the difference in students’ social behaviour in     secondary schools based on fathers’ occupation.3.    To examine the difference in students’ social behaviour in     secondary schools based on fathers’ educational level.4.    To determine the difference in students’ social behaviour in     secondary schools based on birth order.1.4    Research Questions    The following research questions were raised to guide the study:1.    What difference does family size make in the students’ social     behaviour in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local     Government Area?2.    What role does fathers’ occupation play in students’ social behaviour in secondary schools in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local     Government Area?3.    To what extent does fathers’ educational level differentiate     students’ social behaviour in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom     Local     Government Area?4.    How does birth order differentiate students’ social behaviour in     secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local     Government Area?1.5    Hypotheses    The following hypotheses were formulated to guide this study:1.    There is no significant difference in students’ social     behaviour in secondary schools based on family size.2.    There is no significant difference in students’social     behaviour in secondary schools based on fathers’ occupation.3.    There is no significant difference in students’ social     behaviour based on fathers’     educational level.4.    There is no significant difference in students’ social     behaviour based on birth order.1.6    Significance of the Study    The findings will be basically useful to the secondary school teachers as it will help them to understand how to cope with students’ individual differences in the class and will also enable them manage effectively the issues regarding students’ social behaviour. The outcome of the study would help the parents to understand how to counsel their children especially the teens to be aware of the dangers involve in social groups and the future welfare.    Apart from the parents, the Ministry of Education as well as school administration will also benefit from the findings of the study in the sense that they could make sure that the negative social behaviours are reduced by giving basic training on students’ positive social behaviour. Finally, this study will also serve as a source of reference for students, teachers and the general public who may wish to carry out research on related issues.1.7    Scope of the Study    This study concerns family background and students’ social behaviour in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State using selected secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.1.8    Limitation of the Study    In the course of this study, the researcher faced some challenges. One of such challenges was lack of standardized form of instrument for data collection. Time factor was another limitation to the research study as course work activities were combined with the project writing exercise.1.9    Definition of TermsFamily Size: This refers to large (above 4) or small (below 4) number of children in the family.Fathers’ Educational Level: This is defined as the level of fathers’ academic attainment such as primary, secondary or tertiary education.Fathers’ Occupation: This refers to fathers’ means of livelihood of either professional or non-professional.Birth Order: This refers to first, middle or last born of the parents.Social Behaviour: This is defined as the students’ interpersonal behaviour such as social communication, play, cooperation, competition, aggression, friendship and leadership.

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FAMILY BACKGROUND AND STUDENTS’ SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


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