FACTORS THAT IMPEDE READING COMPETENCIES OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE ABSTRACT: The study set to investigate “factors that impede reading competences of junior secondary school students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State”. It assess the extent to which library facilities, home environment, reading approaches and teachers instructional technique impede the reading competence of Junior Secondary school students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated. The population was 19646 students. The sample size was 150 students. PPMC statistic was used for data analysis. The findings related that availability of library facilities, students home environment, students reading approach and teachers instructional technique impede the reading competence of students in Uyo Local Government Area. It was recommended that students should be encouraged by teachers and parents to read materials outside the recommended textbooks and notebooks. School library should be stocked with current books and only professional teachers should be recruited to teach in schools so that students reading competence can be improved. TABLE OF CONTENTSPageDeclaration - - - - - - - - - iiCertification - - - - - - - - iiiDedication - - - - - - - - - ivAcknowledgement - - - - - - - vTable of contents - - - - - - - - viList of Tables - - - - - - - xiAbstract - - - - - - - - - xiiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 11.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - 51.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - - 61.4 Significance of the study - - - - - - 61.5 Research Questions - - - - - - 71.6 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - 71.7 Basic Assumptions of the study - - - - - 81.8 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - 91.9 Limitations of the study - - - - - - 101.10 Definitions of terms - - - - - - 10CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 122.1.1 Tolman’s Cognitive Theory - - - - - - 122.2 Conceptual Review - - - - - - 142.2.1 The Concept Of Reading - - - - - - 142.2.2 Factors That Impede Reading Competences In Students 192.3 Empirical Studies - - - - - - - 322.4 Summary of literature reviewed- - - - - 34CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 373.2 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 383.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 383.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - 393.5 Research Instrument - - - - - - 403.5.1 Scoring of the Instrument - - - - - - 413.5.2 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - 423.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - 423.5.4 Research Procedure or Administration- - - - 433.5.5 Data Presentation - - - - - - - 433.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - 44CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSION OF FINDINGS4.1 Answers TO Research Questions - - - - - 454.1.1 Research Question 1 - - - - - - 454.1.2 Research Question 2 - - - - - - 464.1.3 Research Question 3 - - - - - - 474.1.4 Research Question 4 - - - - - - 474.2 Hypothesis by hypothesis analysis of data - - - - 484.2.1. Hypothesis 1 - - - - - - - 484.2.2 Hypothesis 2 - - - - - - - 504.2.3 Hypothesis 3 - - - - - - - 514.2.4 Hypothesis 4 - - - - - - 534.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - 554.3.1 Library Facilities and Reading Competence of Students - 554.3.2 Home Environment and Reading Competence of Students - - - - - - 56 4.3.3 Reading approaches and Reading Competence of Students- - - - - - - 574.3.4 Teacher’s Instructional Technique and Students Reading Competence - - - - - 58CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Summary of the Study - - - - - - - 605.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 625.3 Implications of the Study - - - - - - 625.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - 635.5 Suggestions For Further Research - - - - 64References - - - - - - - - 65 Appendix - - - - - - - - 69 LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the relationship between library facilities and students reading competence - 49Table 2: Pearson Product Moment correlation Analysis of the Relationship between home Environment and students reading competence - - - - - 50 Table 3: Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis of the relationship between reading approaches and students reading competence - - - - - 52Table 4: Pearson product moment correlation analysis of the relationship between teachers instructional technique and reading competence of students - - - 54 CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In our society today, information available is mainly stored in printed or written format and the knowledge to explore this information as stored depends on the ability to read. The ability to read has been regarded as an important means of measuring the level of the literacy of the learners, since the learners need to read in order to understand what he or she has read to achieve his life objectives; there is need to lay a strong foundation for a students academic pursuit as early as possible. Reading is the principal tool used by children to gain mastery over the contents of the curriculum and inorder to use the tool effectively, the children must have the ability to apply all the essential reading skills so as to comprehend what they read. Considering the regular failure of secondary school children in the junior school certificate examination probably based on their inability to read and comprehend instructions, it is obvious that either there is something possibly affecting the students or problem from the instruction. I am seeking to highlight the factors that impede reading competence in our junior secondary school students and also within the limits of this paper suggest the possible solutions to this problem thereby boosting reading competence in the junior secondary schools because for one to function effectively in one’s daily activities and also appreciate his/her cultural heritage one require knowledge of issues both at local and national level – this is determined by ones ability to read and comprehend. According to Kachil (2009:382) “The child who comes to school without the intention to read for knowledge or enjoyment lack skills that are important for his personal efficiency and satisfaction. There is hardly a time during the school week when a child is not faced with reading because reading ability is greatly valued, failure to read continuously results in a child being disapproved, both by parents teachers and age peers. The social disapproval therefore can prove so damaging as to leave a permanent scar on the child’s growth. This means that the more we read, the higher we go. Those who do not learn to read find themselves academically disadvantaged. In the teaching – learning situation, it as been recognized that the ability to read is similar to the ability to study; to read is the performance of any child. This is because the performance of any child depends on that ability. Students of primary secondary and even tertiary school levels encounter many problems in reading in the teaching-learning situation. The problem is of two kinds, that is those that are natural and those that are artificial. Reading problems emanates from individuals intellect, thus hindering a child’s reading ability. There are also problems that are developed, these problems can be attributed to the movement of the head, lips and hands while reading, these problems can be corrected, they also include fluency – a child’s inability to read well, self expression and vocalization. That is, reading out what is intended to be read unconsciously and also finger pointing inorder to ease off reading stress. Therefore, there is need for the introduction of teaching and learning to read in junior secondary schools so as to read and eliminate those factors that impede reading competences. On the other hand, there are problems that are not inherent and which hinder the childs reading ability. These include the problem of word recognition; this problem can be caused by the child’s inability to pronounce words. There are also problems related to fluency in reading, that is, the child’s inability to read well. Finally, reading serves many purposes, one may read for pleasure, entertainment, news and information, education, direction and behaviour modification. There is therefore need for introduction of teaching and learning of reading in our schools. This should be done as early as possible especially at the junior secondary levels, so as to eliminate the factors that impede reading competences.1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Reading in our schools today is taken for granted especially by teachers in junior secondary school levels. There is hardly any provision for reading exercises. The ability of the younger students to read is simply taken for granted and as a result, the situation worsens the reading problems of the students. The standard of reading among junior secondary school students in our schools is very low in relation to their level of education.The students are deprived of the acquisition of skills required in reading by a situation where there is no systematic teaching and learning. They therefore need to make efforts to check their standard of reading and also improve their competences in reading since performance in reading can psychologically affect the child’s performance in exam. Therefore, the problem of this study is to examine the factors that causes the observed reading problems among junior secondary school students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to examine the causes of poor reading among Junior Secondary school students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study has the following purposes:1. To examine the influence of availability of library facilities on reading competence of male and female students.2. To determine the influence of urban-rural home environment on reading competence of male and female students.3. To examine the effect of reading approaches on reading competence of students. 4. To access the influence of teachers’ instructional techniques on reading competence of students. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In the study significance, it is noted that there is need to know the factors that impede reading competences among secondary school students especially those at the junior level in most public schools in Uyo Local Government Area and beyond.1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS i. To what extent does the availability of library facilities influence reading competence of male and female students?ii. What relationship exist between teachers and reading competence of students?iii. To what extent do reading approaches influence reading competence of students?iv. To what extent does teacher’s instructional technique influence reading competence of students?1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 1. There is no significant relationship between availability of library facilities and reading competence of male and female students. 2. There is no significant relationship between urban-rural home environment and reading competence of male and female students.3. There is no significant relationship between reading approaches and reading competence of students.4. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ instructional techniques and reading competence of students’1.7 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY For the purpose of this work, the following assumptions has been formulated1. Sufficient time is allocated for the coverage of factors that impede reading competences in Uyo Local Government Area.2. Lack of good reading materials characterize students performances in examination and other academic fits.3. There exist a relationship between factors that enhances good reading habit and students performance in the classroom.4. There also exist a good relationship between teachers who teach reading and comprehension and the students performance.5. Poor reading habit are considered to be an impediment against learners’ competence.1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDYThis study mainly deals on the factors that impede reading competences in junior secondary schools in Uyo Local Government, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Therefore, the scope of the study would be on the knowledge of these factors impeding good reading competence among junior secondary school students in Uyo. Specific emphasis will be on the following variables;⦁ The theoretical framework – Tolman’s cognitive theory⦁ The importance of reading⦁ Factors that impede reading competences ⦁ Teachers 1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study was besieged by certain constraint which influenced the extent to which it’s findings would have been considered acceptable. The major source of data was the opinion of students and the teachers. The teachers may not be giving adequate information while completing the questionnaire to please the researcher. Since the researcher depends solely on the response of the respondents for the study. Also, the generalization made in the study was therefore limited by the opinion given by the students and thus; this may not be completely reliable. Direct observation of teachers and students at work and interview of teachers and students would probably have yielded more reliable results.1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS According to Word Web Reading: The cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message. Competence: The quality of being adequately or well qualified physically or intellectuallyFactor: Anything that contribute casually to a result.