ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUNDWATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN WARRI METROPOLIS


ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUNDWATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN WARRI METROPOLIS 

ABSTRACT

This project work was undertaken to assess the state of ground water(borehole and well water) and its health implications in Warri metropolis using Uvwie, Udu and Effurun Local Government Area. Samples were collected in six different locations in Warri metropolis. The analysis was centered on the physiochemical parameters considered pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen(DO), biological oxygen demand(BOD), total dissolved solid(TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, sulphate and faecal coliform. The results showed that Physico-chemical parameters; pH ranged from (3.97-6.62) in the borehole water standard, (5.76 – 6.70) well water; temperature varied from (27.5-29.5) borehole and (27.8-29.5) well water; conductivity ranges from(52-339) borehole and (332-594) well water; turbidity ranges from (0.53-1.23) borehole and (0.99-1.27) well water. Others all in (mg/L); DO ranged from (7.15-7.44) borehole water and, (6.30-7.17); TDS varied from (27 – 176) in borehole and (172-306) well water; TSS varied from (1.0-2.0) and, (1.0-4.0) well water; NO3- ranged from (8.7–20.0) in borehole and, (7.9-35.6) well water, SO42- (<1.0-6.0) in borehole and, (21.0-35.6) well water; BOD (<0.50) borehole and, (56.0-185) well water. Micro-biological parameters; TC (cfu/100ml) were not present in either of the ground water. All values were related to WHO, EPA and FMA standard of water quality. Hence it was therefore recommended that almost all the parameter analyzed for were of the standard of WHO, EPA and FMA which is portable for domestic uses, also with no health implication, except for BOD in well water which was above the WHO standard and pH which was below WHO pH standard would require treatment before usage.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE ( INTRODUCTION )

1.0BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

CHAPTER TWO ( LITERATURE )

2.0 GROUND WATER

2.1 SOURCES OF GROUND WATER

2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND WATER

2.3 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND WATER

2.4 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND WATER

2.5 WATER POLLUTION

2.6 GROUND WATER POLLUTION

2.7 CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT OF GROUND WATER

2.8 GROUND WATER TREATMENT

2.9 GROUND WATER PORTABILITY

2.10 NEED FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION 

2.11 THE NEED FOR BORE HOLE AND WELL WATER ANALYSIS

2.12 GROUND WATER QUALITY

2.13 WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS

2.13.1 PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

CHAPTER THREE (MATERIALS AND METHODS)

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE SITE

3.1 RESEARCH MATERIALS

3.2 SAMPLING METHOD

3.2.1 SELECTION OF SAMPLING SITE

3.2.2 COLLECTIONS OF SAMPLES

3.2.3 SAMPLE HANDLING AND PRESERVATION

3.3 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETRS

CHAPTER FOUR ( RESULTS)

4.0 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE ( DISCUSSION )

5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

5.2 SUMMARY

5.3 CONCLUSION

5.4 RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND 

Water is central to the movement of matter and energy on Earth. Only 3% is fresh, and only one percent of that is available to us in aquifers, lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands. Water covers about 70% of Earth’s surface, makes up about 70% of your mass, and is essential for life, Rivers  are  vital  component  of  the  biosphere  that  contains  less  than  one  percent  of  the  world’s fresh  water  with  their  higher  ecological  and  social  significance  which  are  being  polluted  by indiscriminate  disposal  of  sewerage,  industrial  waste,  and  by  excess  of  human  activities  affecting their  physicochemical  characteristics  and  leads  to  various  deleterious  effects  on  aquatic organisms  (Murhekar,  2011;  Annalakshmi  and  Amsath,  2012). Water  is  one  of  the  pivotal  to  both  natural  ecosystems  and  human  development.  It  is  essential  for various  activities  such  as  drinking,  cooking,  industrial,  agricultural  and  recreational  purposes.  In the  human  body,  it  is  also  used  in  transporting,  dissolving  organic  matter  and  replenishing nutrients  while  carrying  away  waste  materials  (Jayalakshmi  et  al.,  2011). Water is the only substance that exists naturally on Earth in all three physical states of matter gas, liquid, and solid and it is always on the move among them.

Water dissolved nutrients and distributes them to cells, supports body structures, regulates body temperature and also removes waste products. Water is a chemical compound comprises of hydrogen and oxygen in ratio 2:1 with the molecular formular H2O. It has a boiling point of 1000C and freezing point of 00.C

Water has three major sources.

1. Surface water

2. Rain water

3. Ground water.

According to Chapman (1996) and BGS, (2001), groundwater is easily the most important component of the hydrological cycle, an important source of potable water in Africa and constitutes about two thirds of the freshwater resources of the world. Groundwater is fast becoming an essential resource that cannot be ignored in any part of the world (Llamas, 2005). Prior to this recent development, attention was placed on surface water as a component of the hydrological cycle for water supply, particularly in urban areas. In developing countries like Nigeria, groundwater was considered only as a means of rural water supply. Efforts on water supply development were focussed on surface water. However, the situation is changing even on a global scale. According to Gronwall et al, (2010), an estimated 269 million urban dwellers depend on wells as their principal source of drinking water. In urban Nigeria, it is estimated that almost 60 per cent of the population rely on local wells. This rapidly increasing trend seems to be partly due to people’s need to self-supply for lack of alternative sources, and partly due to cheaper well drilling technologies. 

Boreholes sampled varied from 30m – 50m deep, but water was found in the levels between 7 to 20m. Dynamic water level is the level water drops to when the pump is operating due to draw down. Static water level is the level water rises due to infiltration and capillary action (IAS, 2008). Groundwater appears as vulnerable as surface water due to water table being near the soil surface and layers topping the table being permeable, and superficial sources of pollution being numerous (Boutin, 1987; Singh et al., 2012). There is practically no geological environment at or near the earth’s surface where pH will not support some form of organic life (Chapman, 1996). Pathogenic bacteria can survive long underground and may have a life span of about 4 years (Hamil and Bell, 1986). Boreholes and wells locally distort the natural flow field and create a path that opens up an additional possibility of heat and mass transfer between rock formations / aquifers, surrounding and atmosphere (Berthold 2010; Akpoveta, 2011). Indiscriminate waste disposal, poor agricultural practices, septic tanks, pit latrines and graves near boreholes, poor well construction, contribute to borehole water contamination (Sunnudo-Wilhelmy and Gill, 1999; Egwari and Aboaba, 2002; Lu, 2004; McHenry, 2011). These account for the presence of coliform bacteria in borehole water. 

World population cannot be sustained without access to safe water (Braunstein, 2007). It is therefore important to conjunctly consider both water quality and quantity in water resources management (Xinghuiet al., 2009). Borehole water becomes unsuitable for domestic use as a resource due to contamination that makes it unfit (Holmes, 2007).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the minimum daily per capita water consumption to be 27 liters/person/day. However, many people manage with far less than 27 liters (Fraceyset al., 1991), This could be because approximately 70% of the renewable water resources are unavailable for human use or under developed or unevenly distributed (Minh et al., 2011; Gleick, 1993). Drought, desertification and other forms of water scarcity are already estimated to affect as many as one third of the world’s population, affecting consumption and migration patterns in many parts of the world (Talafre and Knabe, 2009). The increasing population pressure and rising demand for food and other services has increased demand for water (Nobumasa, 2006; Rodak and Silliman, 2011). This has 

increased reliance on groundwater resources thereby creating challenges among which are the provisions of adequate quantity and quality of water (WWDR, 2011). Those that are faced with a serious water shortage must either limit their use or make do with used untreated water (Clarke, 1991).

Many countries are turning to groundwater as a reliable source of supply. This situation has been aggravated by the large-scale pollution of surface water. Also, factors such as the generally wide availability of groundwater, its low capital development, cost and normally excellent natural quality are leading to rapid development of groundwater resources (Foster and Chilton, 1993). Groundwater has unique natural features which make it suitable for public water supply (Offodile, 1983). It has excellent natural quality, usually free from pathogens, color, turbidity, and can be consumed directly without treatment (Jain et al, 1996). However, it has been observed severally in literature that groundwater is losing its natural purity. For instance, the microbiological and physicochemical analyses of borehole water samples from eastern Obolo LGA of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria were conducted by Itah and Akpan (2005) to ascertain the potability. Some physicochemical parameters like iron and mercury in some boreholes did not meet the WHO standard for potable water.

According to Harter (2003), groundwater contamination is an undesirable change in groundwater quality resulting from human activities. Urban growth, increased industrial activities, intensive farming, and overuse of fertilizers in agricultural production have been identified as drivers responsible for these changes (Patwardhan, 2003). It is a well-known fact that a polluted environment has a detrimental effect on the health of people, animal life and vegetation (Sujatha and Reddy, 2003). The need to define the quality of water has developed with the increasing demand for water which is suitable for specific uses and conforms to desired quality (Deborah, 1996). Unsatisfactory water supplies and unwholesome sanitary conditions can result in poor human health (Chukwu, 2008).

 Therefore, the maintenance of water quality at acceptable levels is an essential requirement for successful use of water resources. In order to safeguard the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resources, the quality of the water needs to be continuously monitored (Raihan and Alam, 2008). The overall goal of such assessment is to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spatial distribution of groundwater quality and the changes that occur, either naturally, or under the influence of man (Wilkinson and Edworthy, 1981).

This paper examined the groundwater quality of the rapidly expanding city of Warri (Delta State) metropolis and its immediate environs. It focussed on the study of the characteristics of groundwater as depicted by the constituent parameters. Also, the quality of water was measured in this study against set international standards to determine its potability.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:

Contamination of water has being a great issue to the environment and human health. The persisting contamination level has been observed and concerned by the public due to continuous deterioration of water quality.  The reduction of this contaminations in the water is of great interest to the human and their environment because it poses a threat to humans and other forms of life. This study looks at the assessment of ground water and its portablility rate if it has threat to human and also the possible ways for water quality.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:

1. It’s to help minimize the health risks associated with either direct or indirect use of water (Udomet al., 2002). 

2. Natural water contains many dissolved substances: contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, nitrates and salt have polluted water supplies due to inadequate treatment and disposal of wastes from humans and livestock, industrial discharges and over use of limited water resources (Singh and Mosley, 2003).

3. It creates an awareness of the different danger involved when ground water is consumed. There is this belief among Africans that “disease does not kill an African man”. This is not true! Many Africans have suffered of complex complications, which resulted from consumption of polluted or contaminated water.

Thus, man can live without light but not without water. However, the intake and consumption of contaminated water is more deadly than inadequate water.

4. To enlighten the general public and the society at large on how to use simple laboratory analysis (as could be seen in this project work) and other alternative to improve the quality (not quantity) of water.

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 

 Main Objective 

1.   This study was aimed at assessing underground water quality and its implications to human health

2. To determine the physiochemical properties of ground water in the area of study such as PH, DO, BOD, TOTAL NITRATE AND SULPHATE, etc.

 Specific Objectives 

The specific objectives of this study were, 

1. To examine individuals that makes use of the underground water for both well and borehole

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

SCOPE

This work is limited to the assessment of ground water (borehole and well water) in Warri metropolis and the possible effects of the water.

LIMITATIONS

This project work is limited to the assessment of ground in Warri metropolis a combination of (Warri south LGA, Uwei LGA, Udu LGA) of Delta State. Also Due to paucity of fund, the number of underground water sources were limited.

.

ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUNDWATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN WARRI METROPOLIS



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.