RESERVE ESTIMATE OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT (A CASE STUDY OF IMERI, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA)


RESERVE ESTIMATE OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT (A CASE STUDY OF IMERI, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA)

ABSTRACT

There has been tremendous interest in the exploration in the production activities of readily available alternatives to conventional oil. Oil seeps observed in Imeri,  Ijebu-Imushin, Ogun state, south-western Nigeria, serve as an indication of the occurrence of bituminous sand-a nonconventional hydrocarbon resource-in the area. Vertical Electrical Sounding techniques were employed to map the occurrence and extent of this black gold deposits in the study area. Three Vertical Electric Sounding were carried out using schlumberger array configuration. Modeling the likely subsurface structures indicates a likely maximum depth to basement of 13.4m for the bituminous sand across the study area. The constructed strata from the electrical methods revealed that bituminous sand deposit are likely to be present and substantial in the study area with a reserve estimate of more than one million barrels of bituminous sand in place.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - -          i

CERTIFICATION - - - - - - - - ii

DEDICATION - - - - - - - - iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - - - - - - - iv

TABLE OF CONTENT - - - - - - - v

LIST OF TABLES - - - - - - - - viii

LIST OF FIGURES - - - - - - - - ix

ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - - x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - 1

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE - - - - - - 2

1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION - - - - - 3

1.4 LOCATION AND ACCESIBILITY - - - - 3

1.5 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE - - - - - - 3

1.6 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION - - - - - 4

1.7 DURATION - - - - - - - - 4

1.8 JUSTIFICATION - - - - - - - 4

1.9 GEOLOGICAL DISCRIPTION OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT- 8

1.10 REGIONAL GEOLOGY - - - - - - 8

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 DEFINITIONS AND LITERATURE REVIEW - - - 13

2.1 DEFINITIONS - - - - - - - 13

2.1.1 BITUMEN: - - - - - - - - 13

2.1.2 ASPHALT: - - - - - - - - 13

2.1.3 TAR: - - - - - - - - - 14

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - 15

2.3 PROSPECTING HISTORY - - - - - 16

2.4 ENGINEERING STUDIES - - - - - 19

2.5 DETAILED SURVEY HISTORY OF BITUMEN IN THE

  SOUTHERN PART OF NIGERIA - - - - 20

2.5.1 NIGERIA BITUMEN CORPORATION - - - - 20

2.5.2 SHELL D'ARCY - - - - - - - 21

2.5.3 SHELL BP - - - - - - - - 21

2.5.4 MOBIL OIL -- - - - - - - - 23

2.5.5 UNIVERSITY OF IFE (OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY)- 23

2.5.6 NIGERIAN NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION - 24

2.5.7 JEREZ ENERGY - - - - - - - 24

2.5.8 BITUMEN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE (BPIC) -25

2.6 OGUN STATE NATURAL BITUMEN DEPOSITS - - -25

2.7 A PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY OIL 

AND BITUMEN RESOURCES - - - - - 26

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 EVALUATION OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT - - 30

3.1 THEORY - - - - - - - - 30

3.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS - - - - - 34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND INTEPRETATION OF DATAS - - 38

4.1 INTEPRETATION OF DATA (VERTICAL ELECTRIC

 SOUNDING)- - - - - - - - 38

4.3 RESERVE ESTIMATE OF IMERI BITUMINOUS

SAND DEPOSIT - - - - - - - 34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION - - - 43

5.1 CONCLUSION - - - - - - - 43

5.2 RECOMMENDATION - - - - - - 43

REFRENCES - - - - - - - - 44

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. 1.1: Global demand for oil and gas

FIG. 1.2: Base map of the study area

FIG. 1.3: Topographical Map of the study Area

FIG. 1.4: General geological framework of the Dahomey Basin 

FIG. 1.5: Geological map of south-western Nigeria showing the tar sands outcrop belt.

FIG. 2.1 Classification of Bituminous materials

FIG. 2.2: Historical Well and Borehole Data, Block 474 Vicinity

FIG. 2.3: Possible Hydrocarbon plays on block 474

FIG. 3.1:  Equipotentials and current lines for a pair of     current electrodes A and B on a homogeneous half-space.

FIG. 3.2: Schlumberger   Array Configuration

FIG. 3.3:   Resistivity range for various rock types (Palacky, 1987)

FIG. 3.4: Computer iterated curve of apparent resistivity against electrode spacing .

FIG. 4.1: Lithological correlation across the two (VES) points; the last lithological units in the two sections are manually inferred to infinity.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1.1: The lithostratigraphic units of the Cretaceous to Tertiary    sedimentary sequence of eastern margin of Dahomey basin

TABLE 2.1: Details of Asphalt production at the Kaduna Refinery, 1980 - 1992

TABLE 2.2: Estimated reserves for major Bitumen deposits in the world

TABLE 2.3: A preliminary estimate of the world heavy oil and bitumen resources (in barrels)

Table 3.1: Electrode spacing and Resistivity values for VES 1 and VES2

TABLE 4.1: Summary of VES results in the study area.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Petroleum industry has become the mainstay of the overall economy of Nigeria, accounting for about 90 per cent of the country’s foreign exchange earrings, about 20 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product, and about 85 per cent of the Federal Government collectable revenue. The demand for this back gold is fast increasing worldwide. Figure 1.1, from Purvin & Gertz' most recent Global Petroleum Market Outlook study, shows how petroleum product demand has grown since 1995 and how it is expected to continue to grow through 2015. The study shows a 1.7 % per annum growth in worldwide demand and that this growth rate will continue over the next 15 years. The Purvin & Gertz study also states that the growth in crude supplies from 60 million barrels per day in 1990 to 75 million barrels in 2005 will continue up to 95 million barrels per day in 2020. The current growth in transportation fuel demand is outpacing the supply of traditional crude oil sources. 

This gap can be filled through increased production of non-traditional hydrocarbon deposits, such as Canadian oil sands, Venezuelan heavy oils. It is apparent that increasing amounts of petroleum will come from nonconventional sources. Hence the need for the development of our heavy crude deposits. Therefore, in order to ensure continuity and orderly development of the industry, the Federal Government put in place a Petroleum Policy. Prominent among the objectives of the Policy is the development of the large deposit of tar sands in the country. 

The extensive geological studies carried out largely by the staff of the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) IIe Ife, confirmed the existence of the natural bitumen in Western Nigeria in commercial quantities. Similarly, the limited engineering studies of the naturally occurring bitumen in the Okitipupa area of Ondo State. Also, reference to various reports, newspaper publications and other information media in Nigeria within the last two decades is a pointer to the fact that petroleum crude, generally a major source of bitumen, has been aptly described as Nigeria's "black gold". But can this "black gold" concept of petroleum crude oil be extended to bitumen? Perhaps the second phase of Nigeria's economic breakthrough is round the corner!

It is in the light of the foregoing that the title of this research work has been chosen to read: "the reserve estimate of Bitumen deposit in Imeri, Southwestern Nigeria?" to find out if the natural bitumen can be mined in commercial quantity as a nonconventional petroleum to support Nigeria' s economic sector .

At the end of this project, we hope to be able to find solution to some pertinent questions like:

1)   What is the meaning of bitumen?

2)    What is its reserve estimate of bitumen in the study area?

3)    What is its economic viability?

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE

This project work aimed at determining:

The reserve estimate of bitumen deposit in Imeri, Ogun State, South-western Nigeria.

Its objective is to use this reserve in evaluating its commercial viability.

1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This project work covers:

I. The determination of the depth of burial, thickness and aerial extend of deposition of bitumen in the study area.

II. The estimation of bitumen reserve using the values gotten from above in the study area.

As a result of the short duration coupled with financial constraint this project will be limited to the study area.

1.4 LOCATION AND ACCESIBILITY

The study area lies within latitude 06046´-06049´N and longitudes 003058´-003060´E, on an area extent of approximately eighteen square kilometers (~18sq. km), a sedimentary terrain in the Dahomey Basin of Southwestern, Nigeria. The village has good road network that link it to the express. (Fig. 1.2)

1.5 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE

Imeri is almost a flat plain ground with extremely low relief with elevation between 100ft and 250ft above sea level, the drainage pattern is sub-dendrite-like with an average annual temperature of 310C and mean annual rainfall of 1200mm to 2300mm. 

1.6 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

The climate of Imeri is of moderately high humidity, the vegetation include shrubs, grasses and forest with agriculture being the predominant occupation of the dwellers.

1.7 DURATION

This project work is expected to be done within six (6) months in accordance with the school calendar and should be ready latest September, 2011.

1.8 JUSTIFICATION

This project work when completed will boost the nation’s economy by preserving our conventional oil reserves while attention is focused on bitumen development, if all the recommendations proposed are implemented.

Fig. 1.1: Global Demand for Oil and Gas

Fig. 1.2: Base map of the study area

Fig. 1.3: Topographical Map of the study Area

1.9 GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT

The bitumen seepages in Imeri were influenced by the presence of a fault and absence of a good cap rock. The fault is thought to serve as a conduit for the migration of the bitumen to the surface. Further fault seal analyses may incorporate the determination of the Shale Gouge Ratio (SGR) along the fault zones.

Faults play an important role in controlling the accumulation and migration of hydrocarbons. They can act as barriers to fluid flow i.e. seal reservoirs and stop migration of the hydrocarbon, and can also provide lateral and vertical migration paths for fluid. The general characteristic of oil sands (Bitumen) reservoirs is that they lack appropriate cap rock to keep the hydrocarbon in place which usually is responsible for their biodegradation. Other than this, wherever oil seepages are recorded the question in the mind of most structural geologists is to what is responsible for the seepage, whether there is a fault in place to structurally keep the hydrocarbon in the reservoir or the ability of such faults to act as conduits for the passage of the Hydrocarbon to the surface of the earth.

1.10 REGIONAL GEOLOGY

The Benin (Dahomey) Basin constitute part of a system of West African pericratonic (margin sag) basin (Kingston et al 1983) developed during the commencement of the rifting, associated with the opening of the Gulf of Guinea, in the Early Cretaceous to the Late Jurassic (Burke et al, 1971;Whiteman, 1982). 

The crustal separation, typically preceded by crustal thinning, was accompanied by an extended period of thermally induced basin subsidence through the Middle – Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary times as the South American and the African plates entered a drift phase to accommodate the emerging Atlantic Ocean (Storey, 1995; Mpanda, 1997). 

On the western part, the basin is bounded by the Ghana Ridge, which is presumably an offset extension of the Romanche Fracture Zone while the Benin Hinge Line, a Basement escarpment which separates the Okitipupa Structure from the Niger Delta basin binds it to the east. The Benin Hinge Line supposedly defines the continental extension of the Chain Fracture Zone, Figure 1.4.

The onshore part of the basin covers a broad arc-shaped profile of about 600 km2 in extent. The onshore section of the basin attains a maximum width, along its N-S axis, some 130 km around the Nigerian – Republic of Benin border. The basin narrows to about 50 km on the eastern side where the basement assumes a convex upwards outline with concomitant thinning of sediments. Along the northeastern fringe of the basin where it rims the Okitipupa high is a brand of tar (oil) sands and bitumen seepages (Nwachukwu et al 1989). The lithostratigraphic units of the Cretaceous to Tertiary sedimentary sequence of eastern margin of Dahomey basin is summarized in Table 1.1 below.

.

RESERVE ESTIMATE OF IMERI BITUMEN DEPOSIT (A CASE STUDY OF IMERI, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.