ANALYSIS OF WHETHER HEADLINES AND READERSHIP OF SELECTED NEWSMAGAZINE INFLUENCE RESIDENT IN EKET NEGATIVELY
This study was to examine headline and readership of selected newsmagazine in Eket. To achieve this, four research objective were set to guide the study. The researcher adopted the survey research design for the study, with the questionnaire as the major research instrument. Out of the questionnaire copies administered, on respondents 346 copies were correctly filled out and were used for the analysis. The hypothesis of the study was subjected to chi-square goodness of fit statistical too. Findings revealed that Eket resident read newsmagazine to a low extent. Findings also revealed that readership of newsmagazine includes their love for headline news, kinds of headlines published and love for athletes. The studies also revealed that Eket resident have positive attitudes toward newsmagazine. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that publishers should make their newsmagazine more informing, educating and entertaining to increase readership, that good layout/ design should not be left out in newsmagazine publication as this can attract readers and that publisher of newsmagazine should conduct research at regular interval to assess reader’s perception of their publications.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgments - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - -
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
1.5 Research Hypothesis - - - - - -
1.6 Justification of the Study - - - - - -
1.7 Delimitations of the Study - - - - -
1.8 Limitations of the Study - - - - -
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of Concepts / Opinions - - - -
2.1.1 The Concept of the newsmagazine - - - -
2.1.2 History: The birth of newsmagazine - -
2.1.3 Types of Newsmagazine - - -
2.1.4 Characteristic of Newsmagazine - -
2.1.5 Contents of Newsmagazine - -
2.1.6 Newsmagazine Readership - -
2.2 Review of Related Studies - - - - -
2.2.1 Isaiah, E. A (2009). Male student’s readership of
Newsmagazine in Uyo Urban (Unpublished) research
Work, Heritage Polytechnic, Eket -
2.2.2 Asuquo, E. A. (2001). Newsmagazine and newspaper
Reading habits of University of Uyo student
(Unpublished) researcher work, University of Uyo- -
2.3 Theoretical Framework - - - - - -
2.3.1 Uses and Gratification Theory - -
2.3.2 Industrial Differences Theory - - -
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - -
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - -
3.3 Sample Size - - - - - - - -
3.4 Sampling Procedure - - - - - -
3.5 Description of the Research Instrument- - - -
3.6 Validity of the Research Instrument - - - -
3.7 Reliability of the Research Instrument - - - -
3.8 Method of Data Collection - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - -
4.2 Test of Hypothesis - - - - - - -
4.2.1 The Hypothesis - - - - - - -
4.3 Discussion of Finding - - - - - -
4.3.1 Research Question One - - - - - -
4.3.2 Research Question Two - - - - - -
4.3.3 Research Question Three - - - - - -
4.3.4 Research Question Four- - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - -
References - - - - - - - -
Appendices - - - - - - - -
1.1 Background to the study
The magazine is one of the printed media that has its content to a specific audience. According to the state of the news media report, the circulation of the two biggest newsmagazines in the united states-time and Newsweek- dropped from 7-6 million in 1989 to 5.6 million copies in 2009. Michael (2009) opines that in January 2010, Newsweek American circulation was cut to 5.6 million copies, which is 46% less than two years ago, On May 6th the Washington Post, which owns news week, amounted its intention to sell the magazine, promoted by the financial losses of the little. The most radical change, though, was accomplished by us. News and world report now being a monthly publication,(Turow,2003). The same close relationship between periodicals and literature might also have led to the perception of the magazine somewhat detached from the reality that was daily portrayed by the newspapers. The term “magazine” from Arabic Mukhazin “warehouse”, storehouse –currently used to refer to periodicals contains the deal of a mixture of different content (Johnson and Prijate 2000 p.4).
The first periodical to use it, in 1731, was the gentleman’s magazine (Mott, 2001). Published by a London printer, Edward Cause, it “contained tidbits of doing in the royal court and around the town” Scott 2010) and was a miscellanea of essays, stories, poems and political commentary selected from other publications printed in Britain at that time.
According to Wilner, people also started perceiving the newsmagazine as a way of self -improvement, expanding their knowledge about the world, most importantly, saving time.Albert, not by means of direct confrontation, the competition with newspapers started at that time as Time and other magazines were trying to offer better alternations both to inform and entertain people (Winer 2006 p.80).
In 1923, the Luce s’ and Hadden’s magazine was published which had 26 pages and circulation of 12,000 copies, in December, it had reached 100,000 copies. During World War 2 (a term famous coined by time itself), Since the 1930s, time Inc. has invested in a large news-gathering operation to provide the magazine with original information and, in 1960 it reached 3, 000,000 copies worldwide. In 1933, Newsweek was successfully launched by Thomas J.C Martyn, a former foreign editor at the time, to complete for this massive audience.
However, according to Onubajo(2001), a typical newsmagazine is a vehicle for projecting personality through which it attracts and holds an audience. It is an efficient instrument for getting a message to a large number of people with more explanation and details that explain the subject under discourse. Egbocholam (2002) asserts that newsmagazine has been the major communication tool for improving the quality of people's lives, bringing to their notice entertainment, and educational content suitable for its readers.
Despite the worldwide enchantment with the internet and web-based learning, newsmagazine still and retains the advantage of being able to serve dispersed, isolated and disadvantaged communities aspiring to overcome the barriers of subscribing to television and buying radio set. Again, newsmagazine is flexible, it can be read and revisited anytime and the content remains without transient.
However, the readership of newsmagazine according to Sanlos (2012), get more detail and information than other traditional media like a radio which is usually brief and concise. Readership of newsmagazine uses the magazine for various reasons one of which is for emotional support, to keep their spirit up through various contents that range from sport, news, entertainment, politics, education, etc. in a large extent of content more in-depth and rich to sustain readers’ mind. Magazine generally, contains more pictures, colors, illustrations, context than newspaper according to wwwnaijanewscom (2018).
A typical newsmagazine like Tell Magazine, News Watch, Encomium Magazine, Finest Rock Magazine, News World Magazine, etc. are mostly produced with rich contents to attract readers of different perception and it has been established by wwwlegitng (2018) that news magazine has the largest readership across African than specialized magazine like Genevieve magazine, Today's Woman (TW) Magazine who only focused on a particular specialty.
Therefore no argument that newsmagazine serves as a means of communication, in the aspect of information, newsmagazine provides detailed information within and outside the country. Newsmagazine encourages readership of culture in higher institutions and beyond and is often used as a reference point. This research focuses on headlines and readership of selected newsmagazine in Eket, therefore, the focus of the study will be on the above subject using survey design and questioners.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The role of the media in any given society cannot be overemphasized; this is because members of society always turn in to the media for information, education, enlightenment, etc. In other words, instead of buying magazine copies, readers can read online and is an issue of great concern to publishers of magazines. Again, some residents in Eket with a limited resource may not be able to afford some newsmagazine.
However, on the other hand, other residents in Eket could also be interested in reading newsmagazine due to a certain factor which tends to border largely on their appreciation of information and entertainment in general. In the face of these varying alternatives, the question there can be looked at as; do headlines enhance the readership of selected newsmagazine in Eket? And if they do, to what extent do headlines in selected newsmagazine influence readership in Eket?
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of this study were:
(i) To find out whether headlines enhance the readership of selected newsmagazine in Eket;
(ii) To ascertain the extent to which headlines enhance the readership of the selected newsmagazine;
(iii) To examine whether headlines in select newsmagazine in Eket influence readership in Eket;
(iv) To investigate the extent headlines in selected newsmagazine influence readership in Eket;
(v) To identify other factors outside from headlines that enhance readership in Eket.
1.4 Research Questions
To achieve the above objectives, the following research questions were formulated:
(i) Do headlines enhance the readership of selected newsmagazine in Eket?
(ii) What extent do headlines enhance the readership of the selected news magazine in Eket?
(iii) Are headlines in selected news magazines influence readership in Eket?
(iv) What are the extent headlines in selected news magazines influence the readership in Eket?
(v) What are the other factors aside from headlines that enhance readership in Eket?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis of the study was stated in the alternate as follows:
Hi: Headlines significantly influence readership of news magazines in Eket.
1.6 Justification of the study
On the completion of this study, magazine publishers will benefit greatly as its findings will serve as an impact assessment study to help them improve their effort in the packaging of news in their magazine.
This study will help magazine publishers find a common ground between what the print media produces and what the audience, especially residents in Eket, wants to read.
This work is also expected to serve as a good dependable source of reference material for future researchers.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study restricts itself to determine the habit of headlines of selected news magazine readership among resident of Eket. It does not intend to determine the general consumer behavior of the news magazine audience in Nigeria. The chosen populations for the study consist of residents in Eket. It is hoped that such delimitation will expeditiously enhance objectivity, reliability and validity of the research work.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The research was faced with numerous constraints in the course of conducting this study. One of the major challenges was the uncooperative attitudes of some respondents towards the research instrument. Some of the respondents were unwilling to accept the questionnaire without immediate gratifications for the service. However, the researcher was able to overcome these limitations by pleading with them to comply since this was purely an academic exercise. Again, the bureaucratic bottleneck experienced by the researcher in the course of gaining access to the total population of the study was another problem encountered, but the researcher's human relations skill helped to manage the situation.
1.9 Definition of Terms
To guarantee intelligibility, the following terms are defined:
(i) Readership: Number of Eket residents that read newsmagazines.
(ii) Newsmagazines: This is an unbound, printed publication issued at regular intervals and containing headlines read by Eket residents.
(iii) Headlines: This is referred to as a newsmagazine article printed in large letters to attract Eket residents.
Eket: This is the geographical area whose residents the research was set out to study, and also draw the sample from..