The study examined the influence of age series on fiber characteristics of Gmelina Arborea established in Ondo State Afforestation, Ondo State. Three Gmelina Arborea stand of 20, 22, and 27 years old were used for the study. Wood samples were collected from the core wood, inner wood, and outer wood at 10%, 50%, and 90% of the tree merchantable height in accordance with the standard procedure (British Standard Specification, BS 373 (1989). The study examined the anatomical characteristics of Gmelina Arborea wood in respect to their age series such as fibre length, fibre diameter, lumen width, and cell wall thickness were evaluated.

The mean fibre length of the age series was 0.9676 mm, 1.0705 mm, and 1.1363 mm for 20, 22, and 27 years respectively. The mean fibre diameter 0.0256 mm, 0.0269 mm and 0.0249 mm; mean lumen width 0.0293 mm, 0.0161 mm and 0.0179 mm; mean cell wall 0.0050 mm, 0.0053 mm and 0.00500 mm.


Title           Page Number

Certification           i

Abstract           ii

Dedication           iii

Acknowledgment iv

Table of contents          v

List of Tables           viii

List of Figures           ix


1.0. INTRODUCTION         1

      1.1.   Background of the study       1

      1.2.  Statement of problem        2

      1.3.  Objectives         2

      1.4.  Scope          2

      1.5. Justification         2




      2.1. Fibre characteristics        4

      2.2. Fibre proportion and variation      4

      2.3. Influence of fibre characteristics on wood utilization    5

            2.3.1.  Pulp/paper production      5

            2.3.2. Timber production       7

      2.4.  Attributes of wood quality on its utilization     7

      2.5. The selected wood species       8

   2.5.1 Botanic description       8

          2.5.2 Functional uses as Products      9


3.0.  METHODOLOGY         10

      3.1.  Materials used         10

      3.2. Sampled area         12

      3.2 Description of plantation sampled      12

      3.4. Experimental site        12

      3.5.  Method of sampling        12

      3.6.  Sample preparation        12

      3.7. Parameters Determined       13


      3.8. Parameter calculated        13

 3.9.  Statistical analysis        14



      4.1. Fibre characteristics        16

            4.1.1.  Fibre length        16

            4.1.2.  Fibre diameter       30

            4.1.3.  Lumen width        30

            4.1.4.  Cell wall        36

      4.2. Test parameter         42

            4.2.1.  Runkel ratio        42

            4.2.2.  Coefficient of flexibility      46

      4.3. Effect of fibre characteristics on wood utilization    49

            4.3.1 Pulp and paper production      50


5.0. CONCLUSION          50

References           51



1.1.   Background of the study

Wood presents a unique challenge in use because of its variability and the directional nature of

its basic structure. These are the sources of some of its attractive features but they require also

that they be handled and applied in ways appropriate for good end use.  The ways in which the

structural  features  of  the  particular  species  determine  their  properties  and  limit  the  uses  and

applications can be studied more precisely (Jayeola et al., 2009). Many attempts have been made to

define wood quality (Keith 1985), but the definition proposed by (Mitchell 1961) appears to be the most

widely cited: "Wood quality is the resultant of physical and chemical characteristics possessed by a tree

or a part of a tree that enable it to meet the property requirements for different end products".   

As wood properties affect  various aspects  of the manufacturing process,  wood quality must be

defined  in  terms  of  the  value  of  its  end  products.  In  addition,  the  definition  needs  to  include

serviceability, and cover attributes of interest to end-users, which may or may not have a direct

impact  on  manufacturing,  but  will  continue  to  matter  long  after  the  product  has  been sold  and


Wood fibres are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees, straw, bamboo, cotton

seed, hemp, sugarcane and other sources. Because wood fibre is a natural material, wood fibre

products  contain  many  of  the  natural  characteristics  of  wood  in  nature.  This  study is based  on

effect of age series on fibre characteristics of Gmelina arborea.


1.2.  Statement of problem

Wood  has  always  been  a  material  of  great  importance  to  mankind.  It  is  highly  versatile. The

demand  for  wood  has  been  on  the  increase  for  various  uses.  Unfortunately,  most  of  the  wood

species in the natural forest are going to extinction due to high demand by user leading to over

exploitation. Therefore, the use of plantation grown wood species is a step toward meeting the

demand  and  consumption  of  wood  and  wood  products.  Initially, G.  arborea wood  was

established in the plantation with the aim of supply fibrous raw material to the then established

pulp  and  paper  mills  in  Nigeria.  Based  on  the  targeted  end-use  of G.  arborea,  several  studies

have been conducted on its fibre characterisation. However, there is no available information on

the  effect  of  plantation  age  on  fibre  characteristics  of  this  wood  species.  Therefore,  this  study

sought to bridge this knowledge gap.

1.3.  Objectives

The general objective is to investigate the influence of plantation age on fibre characteristics of

Gmelina arborea on wood utilization.   

The specific objectives are:

The specific objectives are:

  1. To  investigate  the  fibre  characteristics  of Gmelina  arborea of  different plantation age


  2. To determine the variation of fibre characteristics along bole length and across the radial

      direction of Gmelina arborea.  

1.4.  Scope

The research aimed to know the influence of ages on the fibre characteristics of Gmelina arborea

on various end uses of wood particularly timber production and pulp & paper production.

1.5. Justification

Wood is a natural and a very variable material. This variability is attributed mostly to variations

in the anatomical structure of wood. Despite its wide range of application, wood, like most other

materials, should not be applied without thought for the conditions under which it will serve or

for  the  inherent  properties  that  will  determine  its  suitability.  As  a  biological  material, wood

reflects the conditions under which it was grown through the variations in its properties, which

vary in different directions.

 Jane  (1967)  recommended  that  the  aspects  of  variation  in  wood  structure  are  of  practical

importance  in  the  industrial  sense. It  is  important  to  know the  variation  in species,  genera  and

families of  a  tree  species  to  observe  the individuals  of  the  same  species  and  the  variations

occurring in the individual tree species as they grow older, from the pith outwards and from the

bottom upwards.   

Meanwhile, the wood of some tree species, by reasons of its inherent properties and variation in

wood structure, is of no value as timbers; others because of their scarcity or their inaccessibility

are only of local economic importance as timber.  



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing