CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study

Vegetable oils have wide application in foods where they are used in frying, cooking, salad dressing, shortening of pastry e.t.c ( N Baker et al., 1997). They mainly consists of lipids with some other minor components including antioxidants, colorants, flavours and emulsifiers (O. Fashina et al., 2006). Some of these compounds occur naturally and some are added during manufacturing process. The presence of hydrocarbons or mineral oils such as n-alkenes in vegetable oils has also been reported ( S. Johnson et al.,2009). Vegetable oils act as carriers if fat soluble vitamins (A,D,Eand K) and play important sensory and functional roles in food products. They provide the most concentrated source of energy, supply essential fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acids which are precursors for important hormones, the prostaglandins and responsible for growth, provide safety and increases the palatability of food (V. Atasie et al., 2009).

In Nigeria, theajor sources of edible oils are groundnut and palmoil. These vegetable oils are used mainly as cooking oil and for the production of soap, margarine and cosmetics (C. Jambunathan and S. Reddy, 1991). The quality of vegetable bottling and storage (F. Shahidi, 2005). Therefore, appropriate control throughout the production chain is important to ensure physical and/or chemical parameters are usually monitored such as acidity, density, viscosity, color, refractive index, moisture, volatility, Di electric constant, total polar compounds, as well as saponification, peroxide, iodine, ester and carbonyl values. Oil quantity and it's stability are therefore very important for the consumers and in application to industries (F. Wali et al., 2015). Various brands of vegetable oils are sold in markets, some are produced in the country while some are imported. Despite the strict regulations and enforcement by relevant regulatory agencies of the sale standard commodities to consumers, at times manufacturers and importers do not comply with standards. In spite of the wide range of applications of vegetable oils.

1.2 Problem Statement

Various research has been conducted on vegetable oils such as palm oil, groundnut oil, soya oil but not palmolein. Over the years due to the scarcity and high cost of groundnut oil, palmolein which is a fraction of palmoil has been use as a substitute for groundnut oil in household cooking. Hence there is need for comparative assessment of some physiochemical properties of groundnut oil and palmolein sold in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is the comparative assessment of some physiochemical properties of groundnut oil and palmolein sold in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is palmolein?

(2) How is it produced?

(3) what are its economic importance?

(4) why the need to conduct comparative assessment of some physiochemical properties of groundnut oil and palmolein?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the comparative assessment of some physiochemical properties of groundnut oil and palmolein sold in Nigeria. The findings of these research will show if the physiochemical properties of palmolein co.pares favourably with groundnut oil as it is used as a substitute for groundnut oil.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research focuses in the comparative assessment of some physiochemical properties of groundnut oil and palmolein.

1.7 Limitations

There was difficulty experienced in the procurement of pure groundnut oil needed for the research because most of the groundnut oil are adulterated.


(1) N Banker, P. Can't, and L. Zock, Adipose fatty acids and Cancers of the breast, prostrate and colon: An Ecological study. International Journal of Cancer, 72(1),1997,587-597.

O. Fashina, C Hallman and C Clementsa, Predicting temperature dependence viscosity of vegetable oils from fatty acid composition Journal of American Oil Chemical Society. 83(3),2006,899-903.

S. Johnson, and N. Sika, Fatty acids profile if edible oils and fats in India. Center of Science and Environment. 1(2),2009,30-36.

V Atasie, T Akinhanmi and C Ojiodu, Proximate Analysis and Physiochemical properties of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(2),2009,194-197.

C Jambunathan, and S keddy, Storage and determination of oils (Canon Press, 1991).

F. Shahidi, Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Product, Quality Assurance off Fats and Oils (John Wiley and Sons,Inc.,2005)

F Wali, M Baloch, M Nawaz and K Khan, Comparison of some physiochemical properties of different oils available in the local market inPakistan, International Journal of Recent Research Aspects, 2(2) 2015,93-98.




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