1.1 Background to the Study  

Throughout history, all cultures have employed a variety of plants or plant derived materials for the prevention and treatment of diseases (H.B. et al., 1983; O.,1987). In developing countries as much as 80% of the indigenous populations depend on traditional systems of medicine and medicinal plants and their primary source of health care (R.B. et al,1983; WHO, 2001). The world Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine (TM) as the total combination of knowledge and practices whether explicable or not used in diagnosing, preventing or eliminating physical, mental or social diseases, which may rely exclusively on past experience and observation handed down from generation to generation verbally or otherwise (WHO, 2001). This strategy promotes the integration into health systems of traditional medicine for which evidence on safety, efficiency and quality is available and the generation of such evidence when it is lacking.

The Alma- At a declaration of 1978, the relevant recommendations of WHO governing bodies and the orientations of the Regional Health for all policy for the 21st Century underscored the importance of traditional medicine and its practitioners in primary health care. Despite these policies, only a few countries have developed national policies, legal frame works and codes of conduct for the practice of traditional medicine.

Herbal therapy is widely accepted and is used as an alternative in the prevention and treatment of physical mental disorders as well as infectious diseases and anti social behaviours attributable to spiritual causes. Due to its intrinsic qualities, unique and holistic approaches as well as its accessibility and affordability, it continues to be the best alternative health care available for the majority of the global population, particularly for those in the rural areas of developing countries (Mwambazi and W.C. 1996). Among the successes achieved by herbal medicine is thatany drugs in clinical use today were discovered from the ways plants were used in traditional communities. Examples include quinine which was discovered from the way traditional communities in South America especially Peru, Columbia and Bolivia used plants species of the genus Cinchona in managing fevers. Thus emphasis is now being laid on traditional medicine as an alternative to Orthodox medicine more than ever before. This especially true in developing countries like Nigeria.

1.2 Problem Statement

A previous study conducted found liquid and powdered herbal medicines prepared locally by herbalists to have high levels of bacterial contamination (M.Justin et al.,1998). The large number of isolated micro organisms from the samples could pose a risk of acquisition of pathogenic microbial agents to those taking these herbal mixtures. This observation prompts the need to know the effect microbiological on locallyade herbs sold in Enugu state.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of micro bacterial on locally made herbs sold on Enugu state.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what are locally made herbs?

(2) what are their benefits and uses?

(3) How are they produced?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the effect of micro bacterial on locally made herbs sold in Enugu star. This findings and recommendations of this research will help develop national policies, legal framework and codes of conduct for the practice of traditional medicine so also enforce them.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research focuses on the effect of micro bacterial on locallyade herbs sold in Enugu State.


H.B. Mathews, G.W. Lucifer and K.D. Fisher, Environ. Health Perspective, 107 (1999) 773-778.

M. Justin Temu, E.F. Lyamuya, C. Makwaya, P.R. Antony and D. Mloka, Afr. J. Health Sci. 5(1998) 140- 143.

Mwambazi, W.C. (1996). WHO partnership in the Development and Utilization of Herbal Remedies in Ethiopia In : Abebe, D. (end). Proceedings of the Workshops on Development and Utilization of Herbal Remedies in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa. EHNRI 26-7.

Promoting the Role of Traditional Medicine in Health Systems. A Strategy of the African Region, WHO AFR/RC 50/9 (2001)3

Promoting the Rational Use of Traditional Medicine in Health Systems: A strategy for the African Region WHO AFR/RC 50/9 and AFR/RC 50/R3(2001)15.

R.B. Bannenman, J. Burton and C. WenChich, Traditional Medicine and Health Care, Coverage, WHO, Geneva Switzerland. 1983 pp 9-13.




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