PYROLYSIS STUDIES OF GROUNDNUT SHELL
CHAPTER ONE 1.1. INTRODUCTION
Biomass resources including wood and wood wastes, agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, wastes from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. They are renewable resources whose utilization has received great attention due to environmental consideration and the increasing demand of energy worldwide. (Bakat et. al., 2009; Tsai et.al., 2007). Biomass can be converted to energy via tgermochemical conversion processes such as direct combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. (Pattiya Suttibak, 2012). Fast pyrolysis or rapid pyrolysis is mostly applied to biomass so as to change it to less energy- dense solid form into liquid form which called Bio-oil. It is thermal decomposition occurring in the absent of Oxygen.
In fast pyrolysis, biomass decomposes very quickly to generate mostly vapourised quickly to generate mostly vapourised and some charcoal and non- considerable gas. After cooling and condensation, a dark brown homogeneous mobile liquid is formed which has heating value about half that of conventional fuel oil. A high yield of liquid is obtained with most biomass feed low in ash. (Bridgewater, 2012).
Many researchers studied the production of bio-oil from various types of biomass by many fast pyrolysis reaction configuration. The yield of bio-oil could be as high as 75wt% on dry biomass feed depending on the type of biomass and the reaction unit. (Bridgewater, 2012). Bio-oil can be used as an alternative fuel in furnaces and engines in order to produce heat and power. In addition bio-oil can be used as a raw material for chemical production. Groundnut and peanut are species of legumes. They are oil crops. Also, oilpalm, soybeans, coconuts, sesame and castor beans. The main sources of groundnuts are in China, India, Nigeria, USA, Myanmar, Indonesia, Sudan, Vietnam and Thailand. (FAO, 2013). Typically, groundnut is grown for food production.
Lately, groundnut is also a feedstock for oil production. Residues from groundnut is called SHELL. The shell is mostly burnt in the fields, and are not efficiently used for energy. Only small part of the groundnut shell is used as a compost and animal feed. By applying fast pyrolysis technology to groundnut shell for bio-oil production, the advantage is not only on fuel value aspect, but also on the environmental aspect. Abnisa et al., 2011, studied production of bio-oil via pyrolysis of palm shell in a fix-bed reactor and find that the bio-oil yield was 46.4%wt at 500°c and contain high water and oxygen.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
All over the world, increase in the demand of fuel for I.C engines in day to day life,there is need for alternative fuel energy sources such as vegetable oil, orange oil, Cashew nut oil, and tyre pyrolysis etc. (Faith Demirbas M. 2007). Also, due to increase in energy needs, especially for the environmental benign energy, the biomass waste, as a renewable source of energy, is of great potentiality. (Mazlam M. A. F et al. 2015). The amount of available biomass residues for conversion into renewable fuels and value added products is quite immense. Finding an environmental and sustainable method for utilization of biomass waste has become a critical problem in many agricultural countries. The biomass waste can be considered as a zero waste net CO2 energy source because the CO2 generated by biomass combustion can be absorbed and recycled from the atmosphere by replanting harvested biomass.(Mikulcic H. et al. 2014)
The use of biomass thus makes no contribution to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. (Mckendry P., Et al. 2002). During the past decade, harnessing energy from biomass has grown tremendously. (Kumar A. Et al.)
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of the research is pyrolysis of Groundnut shell.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the meaning of pyrolysis?
2. What is the effects of pyrolysis on Groundnut shell?
3. What are the end products of pyrolysis of groundnut shell?
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Biowastes are converted into useful pyrolysis oil by using different techniques such as hydrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, dry combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and bio photolysis. (Ganapathy Sundaram E. 2009). The pyrolysis is one of the important method for production of oil from biomass waste and it has been divided into there categories, which are fast, slow and Vacuum pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process,it converts the biowaste into liquid, gas and solid prosucts. (Dmitri A. 2011; Nirwan Sharif, 2012; Augustinova J.2013; Theodore Dickerson, 2013).
The pyrolysis has certain benefits compared to the other methods like operating cost, low pressure, simple procedure and higher efficiency. This produces bio-oil from the biomass. The biomass is heated at higher temperature in the closed combustion system at absence of oxygen to produce pyrolysis by-products such as pyrogas, pyrolytic oil, and Char. (Nurun Nabi MD, 2011; Prakash R. 2011).
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research focus on the pyrolysis of Groundnut shell.
1. Abnisa F., Wan Daud WMA, Sahu J.N., 2011. Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology. Biomass and bioenergy 35, 3604-3616.
2. Balat M., Balat M., Kertay E., Balat H. 2009. Main routes for the thermo conversion of Biomass into fuels and chemicals. Past 1: pyrolysis systems. Energy conversion and management 50, 3147-3157.
3. Bridgewater AV. 2012. Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass and bioenergy 38, 68-94.
4. Dmitri A. Bulushev, Julian R.H. Ross. Catalysis for conversion of Biomass to fuels via Pyrolysis and gasification. A review Journal of catalysis today, 2011. Vol no 171 pp 1-13.
5. Faith Demirbas M. and Mustafa Balat. Biomass pyrolysis for liquid fuels and chemicals. A review journal of scientific and industrial research 2007. Vol no 66, pp 797-804.
6. F.A.O. 2013. Food and Agriculture organization of the united nation for a World without hunger (FAOSTAT).
7. Fu P., Hu S. and Xiang J.et al. FTIR study of pyrolysis products evolving from typical agricultural residues. Journal of Analytical and applied pyrolysis. Vol 88, no 2, 2010 pp 117-123.
8. Ganapathy Sandaram E. and Natarajan E. Pyrolysis of Groundnut shell. An experiment investigation. The journal of Engineering research 2009. Vol no 6 pp 33-39.
9. Mazlan M. A. F., Uemura Y. and Osman N.B. et al. Fast pyrolysis of hardwood residues using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer. Energy conversion and management. Vol 98, 2015, pp 208-214.
10. Mckendry P., Energy production from biomass (part 1). Overview of biomass, bioresource Technology. Vol 83, no 1, 2002, pp 37-46.
11. Mikulcic H., Berg E. V. and Vujanovie M. et al. Numerical study of co- firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calcined, waste management and Research. Vol 32 No7, 2014 pp 661-669.
12. Nuruu Nabi MD, Sultan Mahmud MD, Monirujjaman MD and Shamim Akuten MD. Production of pyrolytic liquid using grass as feed material. International conference on mechanical engineering 2011.
13. Pattiya A., Suttibak S. 2012. Influence of a glass wool hot vapour filter on yields and properties of bio-oil derived from rapid pyrolysis of paddy residues. Bioresources Technology 116. 107-113.
14. Kumar A., Wang I.J. and Dzenis Y.A. et al. Thermo gravimetric characterization of corn stover as gasification and pyrolysis feedstock. Biomass and bioenergy vol 32, no 5, 2008 pp 460-467.