ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF MORINGA ROOTS AND STEM
1.1 Background to the Study
Moringa oleifera commonly called moringa, is regarded as one of the most popular and valuable trees in the world. It is known in India as drum stick, I'm Senegal as Nebedy, in Thailand as Morum, in Hiati as Benzolive tree and in Philippine as Malungay. It is also well known in all parts of Nigeria, in the North , the Hausa's refer to it as zogale or Bagaruwarmakka, in the South west; the Yoruba's call it Ewe igbale or idagbomonoye and in the South- east, the Igbo's call it Ikwaoyibo (Thilza et al., 2010). Virtually, all parts of Moringa tree are consumable (leaves, flower and pods). Studies from around the world revealed that Moringa leave have remarkable nutritional values such as vitamins, mineral and amino acids. The leaves have been used to fight malnutrition mostly among pregnant woman, nursing mothers and infants (Anwar et al., 2007). They are considerable variations among the nutritional values of Moringa which depends on factors such as genetic background, environment and cultivation method (Brisibe et al., 2009).
According to Ramachandran et al.,1980 and Fahey,2005, moringa could be very simple and readily available solution to water treatment problems. It is called a multipurpose tree because it has been found to have nutritional, antimicrobial, medicinal, industrial and water treatment properties. The seeds have been found to be effective in removing turbidity, heavy metals and bacteria from water in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way (kwaambwa et al., 2010). Previous studies have reported that various parts of moringa roots, flowers, bark and stem including seed possess antimicrobial properties (Walter et al., 2011; Onuha et al., 2013).
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Antibiotic resistance has become a globe concern (Mahalingam et al.,2011). The issue of multi drug resistant is continuously increasing at an alarming rate especially in developing countries where there are increases in the indiscriminate use of wide broad spectrum antibiotic as a result of self- medication, immuno suppressive agent and outbreak of epidemics along with the use of adulterated drugs with side effects. Therefore there is a need to research new infection compacting strategies to fight microbial infection.
1.2 Problem Statement
The potential of medicinal plants as source for new drugs is still widely unexplored. Among the estimated 250,000-500,000 plant species only a small percentage has been investigated phytochemically and the fraction submitted for biological or pharmacological screening is even smaller. Moringa and other medicinal plant has a long history of been traditionally used as a cure for illness such as cough, cold, asthma, nausea, fever e.t.c. Hence there is need to assess the antibacterial properties of medicinal plant such as Moringa.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Theajor objectives of the study is to assess the antibacterial properties of Moringa roots and stem in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) What is Moringa plant?
(2) why are they important?
(3) why is it necessary to assess the antibacterial properties of Moringa roots and Stem?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study gives a clear insight into the health and economic benefit of moringa root and stem, investigating the phytochemical composition of the root and stem as well as examining the antibacterial activity of the plant root and stem.
1.6 Scope of the study
This research focuses on the antibacterial properties of Moringa oleifera root and stem in Nigeria.
Anwar F, Sajib L, Muhammed A, Anwarul HG (2007). Moringa oleifera a food plant with dicinal uses. Phytol Res. 21: 17-25.
Brisibe EA, Umoron UE, Brisibe F, Magalhaes PM, Femeira JFS, Luthria D, Wux, Prior RL (2009). Nutritional characterization and antioxidant capacity of different tissues of Artemisia annual L. food Chem. 115: 1240-1246
Fahey, J.W.(2005) Moringa oleifera: A review of the Medical Evidence for its Nutritional. Therapeutic and Prophylactic properties. Trees for life journal. 1,5.
Kwaambwa, H.M., Hellsing, M. and Rennie, A.R. (2010) Adsorption of a water Treatment Protein Moringa.
Mahalingam R, Bharathidasan R, Ambikapathy V, Panneersel Van A (2011). Study on antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant against han pathogenic microorganisms. Asian J. Plant Sci. Res. 1(3): 86-90
Onuoha, S.C. and Alisa, C.O (2013) Antibacterial Potential of leaf juice and Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences
Thilza IB, Sanni S, Zakari AI, Sanni FS, Mohammed T, Musa BJ (2010). In Vito antimicrobial activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye diseases. A cad. Arena. 2(6): 80-82.
Walter A. Samuel, W., Peter, A. and Joseph, O. (2011) Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetal a methanol and n- Hexane seed Extracts on Bacteria Implicated in Water Borne Diseases. African journal of Microbiology Research,5, 153-157.