CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study

Legumes have historically been part of expensive meals throughout the world as they have a major role to play in the fight against malnutrition. It is therefore necessary that their levels of consumption, which are already too low in the number of developing countries be increased. Plant proteins provide nearly 65% of cereals and 10-15% of legumes. Legumes serve as a source of non-processed protein for rural and urban dwellers of the population especially in the poor countries of the world and as a good source of fiber, resistant starch, and other nutrients. They are one of the least glycemic sources of carbohydrates because the starch is either slowly absorbed or resistant (Olapade and Adetuyi,2007).

Bambara groundnut is an herbaceous, intermediate, annual plant, with creeping stems at ground level. The plant is leguminous and has numerous nitrogen-fixing root nodules, the plant support land care provision in Africa ( National Research Council, 2006). The leguminous plant is grown for its underground seeds. The entire plant similar to the common peanut, being a low, flat annual crop with compound leaves of three leaflets. There is also an erect form like the peanut, it forms pods and seeds on or just below the ground level (Stephen,2003).

An intermediate product is a product that might require further processing before it is sellable to the ultimate consumer. This further processing might be done by the producer or by another processor. Examples include sugar and flour (Wouters, et al., 2012). It is also a product that has undergone partial processing and is used as raw material in a successive productive step.

Composite flour has also been developed from cereals and tuber cropsixed with legumes flours. This has added to household convenience because many people working outside of their homes desire foods that can be easily prepared. Due to these changing trends in consumer demands for more convenient products, research studies have been geared towards developing innovative products from legumes such as Bambara nut flour (Olapade and Adetuyi, 2007) but not spiced barbara but flour which would have been more convenient for the consumer.

Moin-Moin is a Nigerian steamed bean pudding made from a mixture of washed and peeled black-eyed peas onions and fresh ground peppers (usually a combination of bell pepper and chili or scotch bonnet ). It is a protein-rich food that is a staple in Nigeria. It originated from West Africa.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is common knowledge that legume seeds generally require a long cooking time for tenderization and the period varies from one legume to another. In the case of Bambara nut, it has not been adequately exploited as a human food because of constraints like hard to cook phenomenon which is more than that of cowpea, strong beany flavor, presence of anti-nutrients, and poor dehulling and milling characteristics (Alozie et al., 2009). It is hoped that good intermediate obtained will help increase its utilization and also prevent it from going into extinction (Nwosu et al., 2014) so also save cooking time.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is the sensory evaluation of Moin-Moin produced spiced Bambara but and cowpea flour. This is to be achieved through the following specific objectives:

(i) Determination of proximate and the functional properties of the spiced flour and

(ii) Determination of microbiological properties of the spiced flour.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is Moin-Moin?

(2) what is Bambara nut

(3) Why do we need to produce a spiced flour?

(4) what quantity of Bambara nut and cowpea will be enough for the research?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the sensory evaluation of Moin-Moin made from spiced composite flour produced from cowpea and Bambara nut. It also shows how consumers can save cooking time by adopting this product. This study will also increase its utilization and encourage farmers to plant it more.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research focuses on the sensory evaluation of Moin-Moin made from spiced Bambara- cowpea flour.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

Only the cream color variety of Bambara nut was procured for the research.


Alozie, Y.E., Udofia, U.S., Lawal,O. and Ani, I.F.F, (2009). Nutrient composition and sensory properties of the cake made from wheat and Bambara nut flour blends. Journal of Food Technology, 7,115-118.

National Research Council (2006). Bambara Bean. Lost Crops of Africa: Volume 11. In national Academies Press. Retrieved 2008.

Nwosu J.N, Onueghu, N.C., Ogueke, Kabul N.O., and Omeire G.C. (2014). Acceptability of moon produced from blends of African Yam Bean and Cowpea 3(5): 996-1004.

Stephens J.M.(2003). Bambara groundnut : Vandzeia subterranean (L.) Thouars. The University of Florida, Assessed April 2011.

Olapade A. And Adetuyi D.O. (2007). Comparison of different methods of producing Bambara (Voandezeiu subterranean L. Thou) flour for the preparation of Moin-Moin Nigeria Food Journal Vol. 25, No. 2 2007.

Wouters, M., Selto, F.H, Histon, R.W., Maher, M.W., (2012). Cost management for business decisions, international edition. Berkshire (UK) p.532.




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