CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study  

Fish and its product are very important to human population all over the world. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization (2002), most of the world's population (56%) derives at least 20% of its animal protein intake from fish. This is because fish is the preferred source of much desired animal protein as compared to poultry, beef, mutton or pork. It is comparatively cheaper and highly acceptable with little or no religious bias which gives it advantage over the proteins (Phillips, 2004).

In Nigeria, fish pepper Soup is one of their best delicacies leading to a higher demand for fish in the region. This gave rise to the increasing number of fish farms in the region in order to meet the demand for fish and also offset the scarcity of fish gotten from the wild environment. Fishes are reared in different culture media or controlled environment which could be ponds (concrete or earthen), vats (wooden or fiber glass) and plastics (Osawe,2004). Among these culture systems concrete and earthen pond are widely used (Ezenwa, 2006).

Earthen pond culture system has been the conventional method of fish culture in Nigeria, until recently; concrete tanks culture system is gaining grounds as land become costly, scarce and readily unavailable (Onome and Ebinimo,2010). Research has shown that a higher number of fish farmers use concrete ponds (73%) as compared to 27% using earthen ponds in Nigeria (Ugwumba, 2010). Fishes cultivated in these controlled environments have been found to be contaminated by microorganisms (pathogenic and opportunistic organisms) (Fafioye, 2011; Nguyen et al., 2007). This contamination has been attributed to questionable water quality and high stocking densities (Okpokwusili and Ogbuile, 1998). The feed used for the fish in these ponds contain organic materials and introduces a wide variety of microorganisms in the ponds (Okpokwasili and Ogbuile, 1999).

1.2 Problem Statement

Among the constraints of fish farming is the high cost of feeding, which resulted to the use of animal.manure to augment conventional feed in countries like Nigeria. However, Organic manure also leads to the release of high concentration of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms into the ponds which are of public health concerns. Hence their is need to evaluate the microbiological and physico chemical qualities of fresh water ponds in Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is to evaluate the microbiological and PHYSICO chemical qualities of fresh water ponds in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what are fresh water fish ponds?

(2) what are the microbiological parameters for fresh water fish ponds?

(3) what are the physicochemical parameters for fresh water fish ponds?

(4) why the need to evaluate the microbiological and physiochemical qualities of fresh water fish ponds?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The microbial flora of a cultivated fish is a reflection of its aqueous environment (Erondu and Ayanwu,2005), it is therefore important to understand the microflora in fresh water fish ponds. It is also significant to evaluate and compare the microbial quality and physiochemical parameters of some fresh water fish ponds in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research focuses on the evaluation of microbiological and physiochemical qualities of fresh water fish ponds in Nigeria.


Ezenwa BIO (2006). Aquaculture research and fish farm development potentials in the Niger Delta. Paper presented at a workshop in Niger Delta fisheries potentials 10th to May 2006. PortHarcourt Nigeria P. 1-12.

Erondu ES, Anyanwu PE (2005). Potential Hazards an risk associated with the aquaculture industry. African. J. Biotech. 4(13)1622-1627.

FAO (2002). Food and Agricultural publication year report 2002.FAO Rome. P 81-94.

Nguyen TP, Anders D, Phuny D, Duncan M (2007). Microbiological quality of fish grown in waste water feed and non waste water feed fish ponds in Hitanol, avaietnan, J. Wat. Resources. Health. 052: 209-218.

Okpokwasili GC, Ogbuile JN (1998). Bacterial and metal quality of tilapia (Oreochromia nilotica) in aquaculture system Inter J. Environ. Health Res. 3:190-202.

Okpokwasili GC, Ogbuile JN (1999). Microbial and proximate composition of fish feed used in Nigeria aquaculture. J.of Nat. and Science. Count of Sri Lanka.

Omojowo FS, Omojosola PF (2013). Microbiological quality of fresh cat fish raised in ponds fertilized with raw and sterilized poultry manures. Amer. J. Red. Community. 2325-4076.

Onome AD, Ebinimi A (2010). Comparative assessment of water quality parameters of fresh water tidal earthen and stagnant concrete tanks for fish production in port Harcourt, Nigeria. Inter J. Sci. Nat. 11: 34-37.

Osawe M (2004). Catfish fingerlings production management Techniques. Success Attitude Development Center (SADC) Lagos, Nigeria. Workshop paper p.32.

Philips I, Case well M, Cox T, Dey Groot B, Frills C, Jones R, Nigutagale C, Preston R, Waddell J(2004). Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data. J. Antimicrobial 53:28-52.

Ugwumba OC (2010). Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Cat fish Production on Anambra State Nigeria. PH. D Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. P.63





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