1.0                         INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Vegetables are one of the most natural foods that contain different micronutrients and thousands of phytochemicals known for their health benefits. There is a wide variety of indigenous vegetables and fruits found in Africa, which are chief sources of micronutrients, antioxidants, and proteins (Odhav et al., 2007). Some of the indigenous vegetables and fruits are mainly used by inhabitants for medicinal purposes (Eifediyi et al., 2008). Leafy vegetables and herbs are relatively inexpensive. They are easy to prepare as rich sources of precursors of several nutrients, especially β-carotene.

Many indigenous plants (trees, shrubs, herbs, twigs and leafy vegetables) are consumed as food, spices or used for medicinal purposes in Nigeria (Nwaogu et al.,2007). Vegetables, especially tomatoes and leafy vegetables, fruits, dried beans and nuts serve as sources of iron (non-heme). In addition to the iron contained in vegetables, the high levels of vitamin C in many vegetables will increase the efficiency of dietary iron absorption(McKinley Health Center, 2010). Consumption of green leafy vegetables can reduce many micronutrient deficiency diseases. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of carotenoids as well as iron, calcium, ascorbate, riboflavin, folate and appreciable amounts of other minerals.

Micronutrients are nutrients needed in minute specific quantities in the body. Most of them are not produced in the body. They are derived from food when consumed. Some of these micronutrients are vitamins A, B12, iron, folate, iodine and zinc. Prolonged inadequate intake of foods rich in these micronutrients precipitates their deficiencies. One-third of the world’s population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies, due to inadequate dietary intake (Fielder and Macdonald, 2009). Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread in the industrialized nations and even more so in the developing regions of the world. This is due to the endemic nature of malaria between 10 to 20% of the population presents less than 10 g/dl of haemoglobin (Diallo et al., 2008).

According to the World Health Organization (2001), anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin concentration lower than the established cutoff. This cutoff figure ranges from 110 g/L for pregnant women and for children 6 months–60 months of age, to 130 g/L for men. Sex, age, and pregnancy status, other factors influence the cutoff values for haemoglobin concentration while others include altitude, race, and whether or not the individual smokes (WHO, 2001). Anaemia can be diagnosed by analyzing the haemoglobin concentration in blood or by measuring the proportion of red blood cells in whole blood (hematocrit). Nutritional anaemia is caused when there is an inadequate body store of a specific nutrient needed for haemoglobin synthesis. The most common nutrient deficiency is iron. Iron plays an important role in the production of haemoglobin.

Iron deficiency is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced, indicating a sign of an underlying disease (Ochei and Kolhatkar, 2008). It occurs because of a lack of iron in the body. Iron deficiency is ranked at the top of three global “hidden hunger” (iron, iodine and vitamins A) with about one-fifth of the world’s population suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (WHO, 2008a). Iron deficiency in its most severe form results in anaemia–Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA). The prevalence of anaemia has often been used as a proxy of IDA (United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF),2004).

Forty per cent of the world's population (>2 billion individuals) suffer from anaemia (WHO, 1996), many are due to iron deficiency (UNICEF, 2004). Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common cause of anaemia worldwide and is particularly prevalent in developing nations in Africa and Asia (Stoltfzfus et al, 2004). A review of the national representative survey from 1993 to 2005 showed that 30% of non-pregnant women of childbearing age, 42% of pregnant women, and 47% of preschool children worldwide had anaemia (Kraemer and Zimmermann, 2011). In developing countries, the prevalence of anaemia is 20% in children of school age (Echendu and Onimawo, 2003).

Anaemia constitutes a serious health problem in many tropical countries. This is because of the prevalence of malaria and other parasitic infection. In 31 of the 38 African countries that had data on iron deficiency, every second child under the age of 5 suffers from iron deficiency (FORTAF, 2000). In Nigeria, Anaemia Prevalence among Under-five Children in Imo State showed that 70.5% was anaemic and 48.1% were iron deficient(Onyemaobi and Onimawo, 2011). Anaemia precipitates decreased level of circulating haemoglobin, less than 13 g/dl in male and 12 g/dl in females (Okochi et al., 2003). The thrust of this investigation is to determine the micronutrient content and effect of extracts of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens in anaemia induced rats.       

1.2 Statement of the Problem          

Anaemia is an important public health problem in both developed and developing countries (Administrative Committee on Coordination – Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN), 2004). It is a worldwide nutritional disorder that is highly prevalent in developing regions of the world and has been a major public-health the problem affecting a greater percentage of the world's population (Haidar, 2010). Most developing countries are battling with hunger, poverty and high rate of unemployment. These give rise to food insecurity in most of the households. Insufficient consumption of vegetables and fruits annually causes 2.7 million deaths worldwide, and is one of the top ten risk factors contributing to human mortality (Oladele,2011). Anaemia affects all age groups but is more concentrated in preschool-aged children and women, making it a global health problem (McLeam, Co Swell, Egli, Wofdylay and De Benoist, 2009).

The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is at a greater rate in many developing countries including Nigeria especially among the low socio-economic class citizens who cannot afford the cost of sources from the animal origin that are rich in iron. Deficiency of some micronutrient such as copper, vitamin A, vitamin B complex (folate and B12) can increase the risk of anaemia. These deficiencies usually occur where diets are not diversified to include sufficient quantities of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meats and fish which are best sources of micro-nutrients (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2002). The incidence of anaemia is likely to increase in future(Duff, 2008), therefore, the need arises to prevent it or seek more cost-effective and better treatment strategies.

A good number of medicinal plants are traditionally employed to alleviate anaemia. Some vegetables have been successfully used locally to reverse cases of iron deficiency anaemia. These vegetable are lesser-known and are more available during the rainy season. Based on these observations, it is imperative that the whole or extract of some common or lesser-known vegetables be used as an effective remedy to manage iron deficiency anaemia. It is, therefore, very necessary to scientifically establish the micronutrient contents and effects of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leaves extracts in anaemia induced rats.

1.3       Objective of the Study

            Broad Objective

The broad objective of this study was to determine the micronutrient content and effects of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leaves extracts in anaemia induced adult male albino rats

Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study were to;

1.      determine the proximate composition of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitensleaveextract;

2.      determine the micronutrient (iron, zinc, copper, beta carotene, vitamin C, E, B6, and B9) composition of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitensleave extract;

3.      determine the antinutrient (tannins, phytates and oxalate) contents of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leave extract;

4.      determine the phytochemicals (saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids) contents of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leave extract;

5.      evaluate the effects of the extracts on some haematological indices (packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)of the anaemia induced male rats;

6.      determine the liver function test (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) of the anaemia induced male rats.

1.4       Significance of the Study

The result of this study would provide information on the nutritional quality of  Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens as well as serve as baseline information for nutritionists, dietitians, community health workers and other related professionals when published. Nutritionist and dieticians will make use of the information to counsel and manage their patient. It would provide evident support to motivate more scientific research to be conducted to uncover more scientific nutritional properties of leaves of medicinal plants that are beneficial to man. The study will also reintroduce some traditionally consumed vegetables that are on the verge of extinction and reduce micronutrient deficiency diseases in Nigeria. The result from this could be used by food industries to incorporate the two extracts into their products as fortificants. They could be incorporated into drinks, juices and condiment. The pharmacists who produce drugs will also benefit from this study if they research more on them so as to use them and produce drugs for the benefit of man. Health workers will make use of the information to counsel women in the rural area on appropriate dietary habits to adopt to assist them to prevent anaemia.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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