Recovery of rent arrears has been one of the major problems identified in real estate management. The main purpose of the study is to show the root causes of default in rent payment and to look at the prevailing methods of rent recovery, and to proffer proper solution to prompt payments. The study will also look into the issue of difficult tenants and examine the best ways of approaching the matters. Conclusively the .study will provide likely solution to the problems of the recovery rent arrears and treatment of difficult tenant will be strictly looked into. This study will equally provides recommendation in alleviating the problems identified in this study.


Title page                                                                                                       Certification                                                                                                  Dedication                                                                                                     Acknowledgement                                                                                       Abstract                                                                                                         Table of content                                                                                          

CHAPTER ONE 1.0       Introduction                                                                                       1.1       Background of the study                                                                1.2       Statement of problem                                                                      1.3       Aims and objectives                                                                             1.4       Methodology of study                                                                      1.5       Scope of study                                                                                 1.6       Limitation of the study                                                                    


Literature review                                                                             

2.1       Who is actually a difficult tenant                                                   2.2       Types of leases                                                                                2.2.1   Monthly leases                                                                                 2.2.2   Biannual leases                                                                               2.2.3   Annual leases                                                                                  2.3       Landlord-tenant relationship                                                         2.4       Contractual obligation                                                                    2.5       Structure of lease agreement                                                        2.5.1   Conditions of lease                                                                         2.5.2   Express and implied conventions                                                           2.6       What is rent                                                                                          2.7       Causes of rent default                                                                    2.8       Method of rent recovery                                                                  2.9       How to treat a difficult tenant                                                        



3.1       The study area                                                                                 3.2       Data collection                                                                                 3.3       Sample frame and sample size                                                     3.4       Sampling techniques                                                                      3.5       Uses of questionnaire to collect data required for the study.   3.6       Method of data analysis and presentation                                 


Data analysis and presentation                                                   

4.1       Distribution of the respondent according to their age               4.2       Distribution of the respondent according to gender                  4.3       Distribution of the respondent according to marital status       4.4       Management of property                                                                4.5       Types of properties (residential and commercial)                      4.6       Factors affecting quite enjoyment of the respondent                4.7       Maintenance of the property                                                          4.8       Payments of tenements rate                                                          4.9       Auxiliary services                                                                             4.10    Duration of tenancy                                                                                    4.11    High consistency of rental value                                                  4.12    Rental value of some residential and commercial properties. 4.13    Opinion of the respondents on whether there is difficult tenant or not                                                                                    4.14    Distribution of the factors that make tenant to be difficult        4.15    Method of recovery of rent arrears for difficult tenant              


Summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion        

5.1       Summary of findings                                                                       5.2       Recommendation                                                                            5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                References                                                                                       Appendix                                                                                          



1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Recovery rent arrears and treatment of difficult tenants has been identified as a major set-back in property management. These aspects of management functions are being confronted with many problems because rent payment depends mostly on income earn from business carried out in the property. These earning and income are usually affected by changing economic condition and personal circumstances of tenants which cannot be predicted and out of control of tenants, the managing agents and the landlord. This topic no doubt has drawn priority attention in several seminars, symposia and even in one of the annual general conference of the Nigeria institution of the Estate Surveyors and valuers all with the view to arriving at a lasting solution to the problem. And as all efforts are being channeled towards the eradication of this incident in the property industry. More cases of the rent default by demands .continue to discourage the efforts. The urge to write on this topic started when we visit one estate surveyor and valuer called Ajilex property which is located at “itakogun” area of Ilesa, he had so many properties on his hand with concern was the property that was located at No. 36 Oke Opo GRA at Ilesa. The tenants was arrears of rent for over four years, and him remit all his rent arrears to the property owner, knowing the legal implication of litigation which will not be in the interest of their client they continued by the way of dialogue to a point that the landlord decided to take the matter to the point that the landlord decide to take the matter to the court and it dragged him for more than two years before the matter was pulled out of the court for amicably settlement. This was a result of the parties unanimously appointing an arbitrator to the matter. The arbitrator’s judgment was accepted by the parties. In this judgment he made the tenant to see the reason why the rent arrears should be paid to the landlord. It was equally agreed that the arrears should be paid installment to enable the tenant to cope with the payment, with this issue of arrears treated, the landlord agreed to carry out his obligations effectively. The decision on the mode of payment took time before it was resolved. The landlord who claimed that he has lost so much money within the period of arrears and court actions would prefer the total sum paid to him at once. However this request was not granted by the arbitrator instead he made the landlord to understand why he should accept the quarterly payment. More so, drastic action cannot be taken to enforce payment of rent on lease hold property unlike chattels which can be taken away by the owner from the person to whom it is hired for a failure to meet the agreed obligation. Rental payment on leasehold is in respect of right of use, possession and enjoyment conferred on the tenants and act in respect of tangible thing. There is usually a complicated legal relationship between the landlord and the tenants. There actions to enforce payment and recovery of rents must follow due process of law. This takes time and may fail if a landlord fails to meet contracted obligation towards a tenant. Enforcement of payment of rent through eviction of tenants by landlords id often mitigated by government social policy on some kinds of landed properties. There are legislation a s regards security of failure, tenants are protected from  forcible ejection and lease for failure. Government owned and managed properties have added problem of need to get political support for its management policy and action. Political climate and influence may not permit the manager of government owned properties to take appropriate action as decision is usually centralized. However efficiency in recovery of rents on leasehold properties depends on efficient management based on good lease term and effective control.


It has been observed that in recent times rental defaults on leasehold properties are on the increase. This development has been agitating the minds of several interested groups including property investors and their agents. This paper is set out to study that causes of default in rent payment and prefer solutions.


The aim of this dissertation is to examine the possible ways of recovering of rent arrears and treatment of difficult tenants. The objectives are:

To examine the root cause of default in rent payment To examine the prevailing method of rent recovery To investigate the issue of difficult tenants To make recommendation in eliminating problems identified. METHODOLOGY OF STUDY

The study was successfully carried out by using information from relevant publications, especially the Journals, magazine and seminar papers and through the use of textbook which provides a good background for theoretical and conceptual issues discussed. The source of the data will be both primary and secondary.


The study covers the recovery rent arrears and how difficulties tenants should be treated. To do this, the method of rent recovery and dealing with difficulties tenants were looked into with specific reference to select properties in Ilesa, Osun State.  


The only presumed or perceived limitation of this study is the shortest time, nevertheless everything pertaining to the recovery rent arrears and treatment of difficult tenants would be fully exercised.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)
  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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