THE EFFECT OF INCOMPATIBLE LAND USES IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN METROPOLIS)
The central Business District (C.B.D) is the focal point of the city which comprises of all activities such as commercial, social, civic life, cultural and prominent land use.
Majority of the central area of the city provides a wide different of uses serving the needs not only of the towns own residents, but also of people in the neighboring villages or small towns that come within the surrounding of its zone.
It is an area of rapid growth in population, so the demand upon its central area services becomes intensified. Large building are developed while residential buildings are given over to commercial, industrial, education, civic or other non- residential uses.
The above features often create certain problems which may be in compatible with the zoning regulation of an area or it may structurally affect the existing land uses of the area. In view of the above statement, this project will highlight the main reason responsible for incompatible land use in the central area which include poor classification of central area uses, lack of zoning of building use group and the traffic circulation problem(vehicular versus pedestrians traffic). The general existing land use of the study area, impact of government on land use control and management as well as the problems caused by the incompatible. Land uses in the study area, will be discussed and appropriate recommendation will be given.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents viii-x
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Problem 4
1.2 Aim and Objectives 4
1.3 Significance of the study 5
1.4 Scope of study 5
1.5 Limitation of study 6
1.7 Definition of Terms 8
2.0 Theoretical framework and literature review 11
2.1 Concentric zone theory 11
2.2 Sector theory 14
2.2.1 Neighborhood by homer, Hoyt 17
2.3 Multiple nuclei theory 18
2.4 Urban location 20
2.5 Factor that determine the pattern of land uses 21
2.6 Review of existing literature 24
3.0 Preamble [Introduction] 26
3.1 Method of data collection 27
3.2 Target population 27
3.3 Sample frame 27
3.4 Sample size 27
3.5 sampling technique 28
3.6 Data Instrument 28
3.7 Data analysis 29
4.0 Data presentation and analysis 30
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2 Effect of the incompatible land uses in the study area 31
4.3 Government impact on land use control and
5.0Summary, recommendations and conclusion41
5.1 Summary 41
5.2 Recommendation 41
5.3 Conclusion 44
According to market beat United States C.B.D. office report 2011, scallywag org.uk website) A city core is after referred to as its central business district (C.B.D). It contains the peak land value which is usually an intersection and is often an area of congestion.
The CBD or central business district is focal point of a city. It is the commercial, office, retail, and cultural center of the city and usually is the center point for transportation networks
THE HISTORY OF THE CBD
The CBD developed as the market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This ancient market is the fore runner to the CBD.
As cities grew and developed, CBDs become fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The CBD is typically is at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a major transportation route that provided the site for the city’s location, such as a river, railway, or highway.
Over time, the CBD develop into a center of finance and control government as well as office space. In the early 1900s, European and American cities had CBD that featured primarily retail and commercial cores. In the mid 20th century, the CBD expanded to include office space and commercial business while retail too k a back seat. The growth of the sky scraper occurred in CBD making them more and more dense.
THE MODERN CBD
By the beginning of the 21st century, the CBD had become a diverse region of the metropolitan area and included residential, retail, commercial, government, financial is institutions, medical centers, and culture. The experts of the city are often located at work Places of institutions in the CBD- lawyers, doctors, academics, government officials and bureaucrats, entertainers, directors and financiers.
The recent decades, the combination of gentrification (residential expansion) and development of shopping malls as entertainment centers have given the CBD new life. Once can now find, in addition to housing, mega- ,as, theaters, museums, and stadiums. Sam Diego’s Horton plaza is an example of redeveloping the downtown as an entertainment and shopping district. Pedestrian malls are also common today in CBD in an effort to make the CBD a 24hour a day destination for not only those who work in the CBD but also to bring in people to live and to play in the CBD. Without entertainment and cultural opportunities, the CBD is often far more populated during the day than at night as relatively few workers live in the CBD and most do commute to their jobs in the CBD. By matt Rosenberg, (2008)
Hence, the ways in which incompatible of land uses exist between commercial, industrial and residential land use in the central business district of Ilorin metropolis will be examined by taking Tanke area and Taiwo Road as a selected area for the study.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been noticed that, there are problems associable with incompatible land uses in central business district (CBD) in most urban areas. This contain untidy confusion, high population rate, traffic congestion and mixture of incompatible uses to which land has been subjected to this categories of problems are very common, in most urban area where many activities such as commercial and services activities from, residential, industrialization and recreational location are been found.
The above stated problems have give rise to the government to enforce zoning regulation especially at the core areas of our cities. Despite this, the incompatible uses still continue to exist in the CBD areas. For this reason, this project research work intends to provide answer s to some relevant question such as;
i. What are the existing land uses in the study area?
ii. What are the problems emanating from those uses?
iii. What are the government efforts to control those problems emanating from the incompatible land uses?
iv. What are the structures of the city generally?
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of incompatible land uses in Tanke area to Ibrahim Taiwo road (i.e. central business district of Ilorin capital city of Kwara state).
To achieve the broad goal, the following objectives are set up:
i. To asses the existing general land uses of the study area.
ii. To analyze the impact of government on land use control and management in the study area.
iii. To identify the various problems associated with incompatible land use of the study area.
iv. To provide reasonable recommendation to the problem identified.
1.3 SIGHIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant of this study is to bring light to the effect of incompatible of land uses in ilorin metropolis which can bring confusion when it come to census of commercial and residential property and the desterilize of the central master plan of the area.
To achieve a good compatible land use there should be an assessment of the general study area, observed the problem associated with the incompatible land use and provide possible solution to the identified problem
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The spatial scope of this study is on Ilorin metropolis as a whole particular reference to the central Business District (CBD) of Tanke area to Taiwo street, while the disciplinary scope is on the study of incompatible land uses in the study area.
Therefore, the effect of incompatible land uses in the central business district of the study area will be critically dealing with.
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
In the course of carrying this research certain problems serve as a form of limitation to the research of this project. The summary of the limitation to the write –up includes:
i. Most of the people interviewed does not give a detail information about the study because they were afraid and said they didn’t know what am going to use the information for.
2. They also refused to provide adequate and accurate answers to many questions based on their trade and social status.
3. Inadequate fund, insufficient capital to carry out data and information make limited to get details or fact for the project research.
4. Limited time, time factor is very important in carrying out any research so as a result of making the project more or less valuable to use, for example, the time that could be used to collect data and information from the field for the useful of the project research always falls to lecture time .
1.6 STUDY AREA
Ilorin, which is the focus of this study, is the capital and administrative centre of kwara state, Nigeria. It is located in the transitional zone of the middle belt and serves as a gate way city between the north and south western part of the country.
Ilorin is saturated on longitude 4034E and latitude 8032’N Emielu (1991). Its strategic location as a gate way city between the south and north makes it become a socio- cultural, religious and political melting point of the nation.
It is also an important commercial, industrial and institutional center. The rapid physical development nature of the city makes the provision, maintenance and funding of infrastructures epileptic.
It is also an important commercial, industrial and institutional center. The rapid physical development nature of the city makes the provision, maintenance and funding of infrastructure epileptic.
Ilorin comprises of four major words. The Gambari and Fulani wards that comprises Hausas and Fulanis, and the Ajikobi and Alanamu wards that are made of the Yoruba with other smaller or sub-wards.
Traditionally most indigenes engage in farming weaving, dyeing and leather works. With the changing status of the town many more are Trader, civil servants, artisans etc.
The concentration of all these land use activities thus influencing the population of city has increased from 208,346 in 1963 to 508 388 in 1991 of which females are more than males for the purpose of this study, the head count of 1963( which is still reliable give the population of ilorin to be 508, 388 in 1991 which has been projected to about 2,365,353 by the year 2006). whereby male is 1,193, 783 and female is 1,171,570.(NPC).
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. LAND: According to Adebayo (2004) Its an area of the ground, especially one that is used for a particular purpose such as farming, building transportation and etc. i.e. the solid portion of the earth surface.
ii. PROPERTY: According to Bashorun it is any physical or intangible entity that is owned by a person or jointly by a group of people or a legal entiry likes a corperation. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property has the right to consume, sell, rent, mortgage, transfer, exchange or destroy it, or to exclude others from doing these things.
iii. COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: According to Bashorun (2005) real estate intended for use by for profit business, such as office complexes, shopping malls, service stations and restaurants. It may be purchase outright by a developer for future projects or leased through a real estate broker. This type of property falls some where between residential and industrial property.
iv. PEAK LAND VALUE: According to Adebayo (2004) refer to it as region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city and has the greatest density oft as transportation links such as roads and rails. ( by David Waugh , 2000)
v. RECREATIONAL: These are the activities that is being referred to as leisure i.e. activities which often brings about enjoyment, amusement or pleasure and are considered to be fun( Claudia Wallis 2010)
vi. DOWNTOWN: Is a term primarily used in north America by English speakers to refer to a city’s core (or center) or central business district, often in a geographical sense. It has been used in Australia in cities like Sydney and melborune and for new zeal and mian city Auckland, as well ( larry ford 2003)
vii. RESIDETIAL PROPERTY: It means a building or part thereof or currently designed for use as a single dwelling only and include. On buildings or other appetencies incidental to any such use (John A Kilpatrick 1999).
viii. INDUSTRIALIZATION: Chika (2012) refer to it as the period of social and economic change that transforms a human from an agrarian society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernization process where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and metaltargy production. It is an extensive organization of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. ( By Kemptom 1999)
ix. CBD: The term CBD central business district of a city, usually typified by a concentration of rental and office building. Also it is called a central activities district which is the commercial and often geographical heart of a city. By wikipeia (mobile version). (Arthur 2003)
x. CRAMATORY: Business directly responsible for the cremation of the descendant’s remains ( stein, peter 2010)
xi. DOMICLIARY LETTER’S : The document a probate court issues to the administrator of an estate, authoring them to act on behalf of the estate and to perform all duties required to administer the estate, according to estate laws ( Gwon, Yeong-Seok 2006)
xii. EQUITABLE TITLE: A right a beneficiary retains to benefit from the property as specified in the trust. Also called beneficial title (Steven M. 2003).
xiii. ESTATE : Term used in common law to signify the total of a person’s property entitlements and obligations owned at death ( Memili, Umit 2012)
xiv. BOND: The large scale real estate development is capital intensive and initials long - term investment risks, long term investment risks are better managed when the investment are matched by long term capital corporate bonds intermediate between long – term investment needs and long term capital kuye 2006..