1.1     Background of study  

For many years now and many more years to come, the aquatic environment have served (and will continual to serve) as a stable habitat to various species of plant and animals ranging from the micro-cellular zooplankton to the more complex species of fishes and birds. Over the year a natural resource (crude oil) has been found present both on land and on sea. In Nigeria alone there are about 606 oil fields in the Niger Delta, of which 360 are on-shore and 246 off-shore (Nwilo and Badejo, 2005). Boasting herself as the largest oil-producing country in Africa and sixth in the world.

This precious natural resources initially was used as a means of illumination and lubrication of machine parts against friction but ever since the invention of the automobile industry and the internal combustion energy, the demand for this product has increased rapidly. Currently, there are many challenges associated with the transportation, stockpiling, distribution and production of this raw materials and its various fractions. In an attempt to make this commodity reading available for usage, various pollution activities has sufficed ranging from the contamination of both water and soil environment either by deliberate vandalizing of oil pipeline used for the transport of crude oil, to the fallout of ships transporting crude oil from an on-shore to the jetty thereby creating an unbalanced and stressed aquatic environment.

The effects of this pollution includes, decreasing the population of aquatic wildlife , making the water environment unsuitable for domestic and commercial purpose, also the reduction on the availability of oxygen necessary for  growth thus causing death, and the evaporation of high volatile fraction thus making the site a potential fire outbreak area. Various clean-up method like the application of chemical dispersants and controlled burning serves but with little effectiveness as the atmosphere becomes heavily polluted as in the case of burning and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) also harms the climate. Also by introducing chemical dispersants the toxicity of the environment is increased even though the spill is treated, it ‘in returns’ pollutes the environment.

With a purpose of developing a cleaner and safe technology for the treatment of crude oil pollution, microbiologist came up with a natural model which could be stimulated to achieve fast and safer result. Bioremediation is often referred to as the most natural method of eliminating large amount of oil contaminants from the environment with the use of a naturally occurring micro- organism to degrade hazardous crude substance into less toxic or non-toxic compounds. It is worthy of note that bioremediation is an optimization of a natural process of biodegradation where micro-organism chemically alter and break down organic molecules in other substance such as carbon dioxide, fatty acids and water in order to obtain energy and nutrients. Under bioremediation two distinct processes may be applied to speed and enhance the process. They include Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation. Bioaugmentation involves the addition or application of Hydrocarbon utilizing micro-organism thereby increasing the microbial population responsible for the clean-up of the polluted site. Specific bacteria and fungi can be used in this process but bacteria are more commonly used. Biostimulation involves the addition of appropriate microbial nutrients to a polluted site to increase the microbial activities of indigenous microbial flora. Some useful bacteria involved in bioremediation includes pseudomonas, aeromonas, Moraxella, Bilejerirckia, chrobacter, Nocardia, Streptomyces. In this study the effect of Nutrients specifically Urea and Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N.P.K) on bioremediation will be examined.

1.2     Statement of problem

Due to the ever increasing demand globally for crude oil and its various fractions, pollution of crude oil and its various fractions on both land and sea has been a major challenge associated with this industry. The need for a cleaner and better technology which would create a cleaner environment for aquatic wildlife and terrestrial organization has placed a call for the clean-up technology of bioremediation. On a crude oil contaminated site, the number of microbes’ present increases rapidly without a subsequent increase in the nutrients available in the soil or aquatic body, thus a challenge of insufficient nutrients for proper bioremediation.

            Hence, this research studies the effect of the addition of Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium(N.P.K) fertilizer and Urea  nutrients to contaminated crude oil water with a cultured stain of bacteria of the pseudomonas sp on the rate of bioremediation. This biotechnology is very promising as it makes land or aquatic environment habitable again after the treatment has been carried out.

1.3              Aim and Objectives of the Project

To study the effect of urea and N.P.K on the bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated water.TO achieve this, the following activities were defined and carried out:

To synthesize a crude oil contaminated water. To culture pseudomonas aeroginosa bacteria. To apply nutrients to this synthesized crude oil contaminated water containing cultured bacteria To prepare samples with varying quantity of nutrients. To observe the effect of the nutrients in the crude oil-contaminated water. To determine the Residue Hydrocarbon Content (RHC) in the crude contaminated water.

  1.4              Significance of the work

This method of crude oil contamination clean-up is very effective in that it utilizes naturally occurring micro-organism capable of ‘eating up’ crude oil and its various fraction depending on some environmental factors which may include availability of adequate nutrients in the contaminated site. A thorough understanding of the bioremediation process and the responsible micro-organism would in a long run help in solving the problem of oil pollution associated with the oil industry when applied. The proportions of combination of the nutrients to achieve a balance concentration in the aquatic environment to be added to any environment so as not lead to eutrophication and so enhance the bioremediation of crude oil contained site. The importance of this study would lead to a great reduction in the effects of the pollution caused by oil spill in Nigeria and the world at large and facilitate the quick recovery of such site and make them habitable in the shortest possible time.

  1.5     Scope of Research

This research would consider primarily the biostimulation aspect of bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated water. Nutrients like Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium (N.P.K) fertilizer and Urea would be added to an artificially contaminated crude oil-water to carry out the study.




RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing