This study was intended to evaluate the consequences of deforestation on rural household income. This study was guided by the following objectives; to find out the causes of deforestation in Odighi in Edo state, to examine the consequences of rural household income, to determine the strategies of reducing deforestation.

The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using simple percentages which were presented in frequency tables and percentages. The respondents under the study were 50 respondents including farmers, hunters, and staff of the agricultural and forestry department in Odighi Edo state, Abuja branch. The study majorly focuses on the consequences of deforestation on rural household income.

The study findings revealed that deforestation negatively affects rural household income in Odighi Edo state; based on the findings from the study, efforts should be made by the Nigerian government and stakeholders in promoting tree planting and preservation.


ABSTRACT --------------------------------------------------------------------4



1.1.         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY --------------------------------6

1.2.         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ------------------------------8

1.3.         RESEARCH QUESTIONS-------------------------------------------9

1.4.         AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY -------------------9

1.5.         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY -------------------------------10



2.1. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION ------------------------------------11

2.2. CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION -----------------------32



RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ------------------------------------------48

3.1. RESEARCH DESIGN --------------------------------------------------48

3.2. POPULATION OF THE STUDY------------------------------------48

3.3. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE -----------------------49

3.4. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT -----------------------------------------49

3.5. VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT --------------------------------------50

3.6. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ------------------------------50





5.1. SUMMARY -----------------------------------------------------------------57

5.2. RECOMMENDATION --------------------------------------------------57

5.3. CONCLUSION ------------------------------------------------------------58




1.0.         INTRODUCTION

Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stands of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.  Examples of deforestation include the conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on the biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.

 Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization. Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new flows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.

Deforestation is a contributor to global warming and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall.

The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer transpire this water, resulting in a much drier climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. The dry soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion so that erosion, flooding, and landslides ensue.


Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change, and preservation of biodiversity (Sheram, 1993). Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production (Anon., 1994). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations. However, it is obvious that the area of tropical rainforest is diminishing as observed in the case of Odighi forest in Odighi Local government area of Edo State and the rate of tropical rain forest destruction is escalating worldwide despite increased environmental activism and awareness. Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing, or urban development (van Kooten et al, 2000).

Deforestation is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics (Myers, 1994) as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests (Barraclough et al, 2000) causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse effect (Angelsen et al., 1999). FAO considers a plantation of trees established primarily for timber production to be forest and therefore does not classify natural forest conversion to the plantation as deforestation (but still records it as a loss of natural forests). However, FAO does not consider tree plantations that provide non-timber products to be forest although they do classify rubber plantations as forest.

Forest degradation occurs when the ecosystem functions of the forest are degraded but where the area remains forested rather than cleared (Anon., 2010).

Thirty percent of the earth’s land area or about 3.9 billion hectares is covered by forests. It was estimated that the original forest cover was approximately six billion hectares (Bryant et al., 1997). The Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America, and China were the most forest-rich countries accounting for 53 percent of the total forest area of the globe. Another 64 countries having a combined population of two billion was reported to have forest on less than ten percent of their total land area and unfortunately, ten of these countries have no forest at all. Among these countries, 16 are such which had relatively substantial forest areas of more 1than one million hectares each, and three of these countries namely Chad, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Mongolia each had more than ten million hectares of forest. The forest area remained fairly stable in North and Central America while it expanded in Europe during the past decade. Asian continent especially India and China due to their large-scale afforestation programme in the last decade registered a net gain in the forest area. Conversely, South America, Africa, and Oceania had registered the net annual loss of forest area (Anon., 2010).


There is enough evidence that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For several years, there has been remorseless destruction which must be put under control to avoid some bad consequences associated with deforestation. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations. However, this research work will focus on the consequences of deforestation on the rural household income especially as observed in Odighi in Edo State.


The aim of this study is to determine the causes and consequences of deforestation in Odighi and the following objectives are stated for this research study:

To find out the causes of deforestation in OdighiEdo State To find out the consequences of deforestation on rural household income in OdighiEdo State. To determine the strategies for reducing deforestation.


What are the causes of deforestation in OdighiEdo State? What are the consequences of deforestation on rural household income in OdighiEdo State What are the strategies for reducing deforestation?


          The significance of this research are:

To provide solutions that can assist educators, the general public, and the government on the causes and consequences of deforestation thereby raising awareness about unwanted outcomes of deforestation. Findings from this research work will also ascertain the extent of deforestation in OdighiEdo State

This research work will help to improve the existing literature on deforestation thereby contributing to the body of knowledge.




RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing