The environmental assessment of potentially oil impacted areas in Duburu, khana local government area, rivers state is a research carried out on the five sites to show the primary source of contamination is considered to be the crude oil which may have either been spilled through sabotage or leakage from the existing oil wells and pipelines resulting to the contamination of surface and subsurface soil and water.

The oil impacted areas or spilled areas has affected the habitant of Duburu and the nearby communities;

Directly and indirectly either through consumption of harvested crops products from the impacted areas and domestic and non-domestic animals as food, and drinking of domestic or portable water which has been contaminated poses to be hazardous and risky to human health in general, and also commercially it has made the cost of living and standard of living high because instead of over 85% percent of foods are bought from other communities that are not affected.

Different researches have shown promising results and methods  with respect to the remediation of oil impacted areas: s

Detailed Quantitative risk assessment (DQPA), Risk Assessment Matrix, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-benzene, and Xylene (BTEX), e.t.c. were used for the assessment of the successful completion of this word.


Table of Contents


CHAPTER ONE    91.1 INTRODUCTION    9GENERAL    91.2 OBJECTIVE    91.3    SCOPE OF WORK    91.4    ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING    10SITE LOCATION, DESCRIPTION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION    101.5    Limitations and Constraints    121.6    Vegetation Type, Local Human Activities and Land Use.    121.7    REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORKS    12

CHAPTER TWO    142.1    REGIONAL GEOLOGY    142.6 Regional Hydrogeology    202.7    Regional Hydrology    21

CHAPTER THREE    223.0    METHODOLOGY    223.1    MATERIALS AND METHODS    223.1.1 FIELD EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS    223.2 FIELD MEASUREMENT    233.2.1 FIELD SAMPLING    233.2.2 SAMPLE COLLECTION    233.3Laboratory Analytical Methods and Procedures    243.3.1Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon    253.3.2 Volatile Hydrocarbon    263.3.3 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons    263.3.4 Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QA)    273.4 FIELD MEASUREMENT    27SUMMARY OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS    27

CHAPTER FOUR    294.1    Potential Sources of Contamination    294.1.1    Potential Receptors    294.1.2    Potential Pathways    30ASSESSMENT OF SITE SOILS    324.2 SOIL CONTAMINATION TESTING    324.3    POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH)    344.4    TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON (TPH)    36





This report involves soil and surface water contamination appraisal of five potentially impacted areas located in Khana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria.

The area forms part of the sites covered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2011 and includes Duburu. Detailed descriptions and locations of these sites are given in chapter 2.


The present assessment is required to achieve the following objectives;

·        To delineate the lateral and vertical extent of oil spills on soil and surface water systems.

·        To confirm the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and volatile Compounds (BTEX)

·        Evaluate results obtained in line with DPR regulatory standards (target and intervention values) for contaminated surface water and soil.

·         Use data obtained to determine if remedial measures are required for any identified affected surface soil.


The work scope for the study includes the following:

Ø Contamination appraisal which generally involves surface and near-surface assessment of soil.

Ø The soil survey involves an intrusive aspect using auger drilling in which subsurface soil materials were assessed.

Ø Laboratory testing and an appraisal of the results all in accordance with international standards and the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN).



Detailed descriptions of each site together with the location, specific characteristics, and main features are summarized in Table 1 below. A plan indicating the location of Khana L.G.A. the host local council of all the area is included in Figure 1. The oil spill in the objective areas occurred in January 1994 during which time the cause of the spill was unknown. As at the time of the spill, environmental media affected by free phase oil were soils in farmlands and stagnant and running surface water. Visual observation indicated oil sheen and oil patches on surfaces of running and stagnant water pools and when bottom sediment is disturbed, stain on vegetation. The areal extent of the spill as of 1994, ranged from 2 – 5km long and 20 – 140m wide, and an area of between 50,000 – 140,000m2.  The average depth of penetration of free phase oil was 0.03m, while the nearest habitation was <100m.

Fig. 1: Location map of study areas. (Not to Scale).

1.5     Limitations and Constraints

Limitations encountered during the course of this work were associated with the fieldwork exercise. These include challenges associated with swampy and rugged terrains

1.6     Vegetation Type, Local Human Activities, and Land Use.

The area is characterized mainly by secondary vegetation type characteristic of tropical equatorial climatic regions made up of forested evergreen plant species composed of a mix of short shrubs medium to tall trees, short and tall grasses, and ferns in open areas, while dense vegetation and thickets made up of tall evergreen tropical tree species and tall grasses occur around the swamplands. Mangrove swamps exist around watercourses in the Baen area. Species of the remnant natural vegetation include oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) and bamboo that is commonly seen in the area, although some of the oil palm trees were planted by the locals. Subsistence agricultural activities form the mainstay of the local economy of the rural population. Annual crops cultivated by the local population include plantain, pineapple, cassava, yam, sugarcane, and maize e.t.c. Plate 1shows the vegetation type in the spill area. A summary of the general vegetation composition in the various sites are shown in Table 1 below:

Table 1: Site details


General site information/observations


Low lying, arable farmlands, riverine, secondary vegetation


Companies such as shell have used a generic conceptual site model (CSM) to develop the assessment strategy used to identify their facilities that represent a risk to human health or the environment and therefore require remediation. The key findings were:

·        The main contaminant of concern is crude oil.

·        The main primary sources of contamination at companies' operations result in the discharge of crude oil to the ground surface and where pipelines are buried to below ground.

·        There is generally a limited penetration of crude oils into the soils in the Niger Delta. However, specific pathways may exist that could result in deeper penetration of the contaminants.

·        Migration will predominantly be along the ground surface from high to low topography, or through slow soil infiltration into the near-surface groundwater table.

·        The main risk to human health is from direct contact and ingestion or indirect means through the intake of bio-accumulated forms in the plant (food crops); however, there may be cases where either potable or domestic water is impacted.

Gighi et al(2012). Have worked onPost-impact soil assessments of crude oil spill site in kpean community in Khana LGA (Ogoni) of rivers state, Nigeria. J. Sci., 2: 109-120.


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