RESOURCES AVAILABILITY AND TEACHER’S PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE)
This study investigated resources availability and teachers’ productivity in secondary school in Ilorin east local government area, Kwara State.
Descriptive Survey of Correlation type was adopted for the study. The population of this study was made up of public and private secondary schools in the Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State. However, simple random sampling technique was used to select nine (9) public and six (6) private secondary schools and 135 respondents.
The instrument was a researcher’s designed questionnaire. The questionnaire was titled: “Resources Availability and Teacher’s Productivity Questionnaire” (RATPQ). Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistic was used to test the formulated research hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance.
The study revealed that; the level of the extents the teachers in secondary school needs educational resources was high in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State, The impact of the resources has on teachers’ productivity in both private and public schools was high in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State, The extents to which that resources provided to the teachers in public school was low and in private school was high in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State, Extents to which resources made available to teacher of relevance to the instruction to be passed on the students was high in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State.
The results from the analysis of the both main hypothesis operational hypotheses were tested and rejected. There was significant relationship between resource availability and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State, There was significant relationship human resources availability and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State, There was significant relationship material resources availability and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State and There was significant relationship financial resources availability and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ilorin east local government area Kwara State.
Based on the research finding of this study the following recommendations were made; The government should ensure that there are enough teachers as human resources in schools to avoid work overload and ensure their productivity, The various stakeholders should ensure that there are adequate resources are available in the school to create a conducive environment for teaching and learning, The Ministry of Education should ensure that adequate money are allocated and proper monitoring to the secondary school education in order to enhance teachers’ productivity and There should be provision of other non-human materials to the schools in order to facilitate the effective and efficient of the secondary schools teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vi-vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1-5
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 6
Research Hypotheses 7
Scope of Study 7
Definition of Terms 7-10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of educational resources 11-15
Resources Allocation in Secondary Schools15-19
Administrators roles in resources management19-24
Concept of teachers’ productivity 24-25
Measures of productivity in school 25-26
Students of academic performance 27-29
Appraisal literature reviewed 29-31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research design 32
Population, sample & sampling techniques 32-33
Procedure for data collection 34
Data analysis techniques 34
Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Findings 35-40
Discussion of the Finding 40-42
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 43-44
Conclusions of the findings 44-45
Background to the Study
The role of resource availability in the attainment of educational goals and objectives in Nigerian secondary schools cannot be overemphasized. The students’ learning outcome, which is the measure of teachers’ productivity cannot be dissociated from the level of resources available for carrying out the teaching learning process.
One major problem facing the educational system in Nigeria could be summarized as being a product of inadequacy in the availability of appropriate resources that is essential for instructional process (Asaolu, 2010).
A synthetic report stressed the most potent weapon for overcoming the lapses of the Nigerian educational as “The creation of adequate physical facilities equipped w+ith all necessary books and teaching aids for the implementation of assigned educational tasks of appropriate levels” (Adekanye, 2011).
The reveals the virility of educational resources as a potent force towards revitalizing the present weak state of the educational system through improved instruction.
While placing some much emphasis on the importance of resources to the education system, it is equally necessary to highlight the impact it has on the instruction process in which the teacher is the most virile instrument in the conversion of these educational inputs to outputs of high quality and standard.
The ultimate objective of education is to elicit certain responses from the students and how effective this is done is determined by the teacher’s performance and productivity, which is influenced by the resources available to them (Adedeji, 2011).
The teachers are the most prominent human resource available to schools, therefore, it is important that the right resources in the context of quality and quantity should be made available to the teachers in order to enhance the process of conversion of educational input into good quality output (Aregebsola, 2011).
The acid test for the productivity/performance of teachers in the school system is the attainment of set educational objectives as such, the level of teachers performance can only be assessed as been good if the students are able to perform at least as well as the objective requires, thus the emphasis is more on instructional result than instrumental performance (Bebefiani, 2012).
Every Nigerian child deserves the opportunity to develop intellectual and working capabilities in order to be of benefit to himself and the society, this can be achieved only enough sound education. Which aids him in the process of cognitive, intellectual development and self actualization, but unfortunately, the system has not been very successful in helping students discoverer and explore their potentialities. This can be attributed to a faulty instructional process and is pointer to the inadequacy and often times irrelevance of available resources to educational process (Adeogun, 1919).
It must therefore be stated that demand for education in Nigeria (with reference to Kwara State is very high in comparison with the meagre resources available and this has an adverse impact of the level of productivity of teachers both in publics and private secondary schools in Ilorin East Local Government in Kwara State (Abdullahi, 2009).
The introduction for Fee education Scheme (in Government owned/public schools) by eth present civilian regime has been of more damage than help to the state of education in the state as government has exhibited a gross in capability in providing the necessary resource for secondary schools, therefore, there is need for alternative sources of providing educational need (Nwani, 2012).
The resources needs of teachers refer to facilities which aid them to conduct a more effective instructional delivery and such resources include physical, materials, financial materials and programmes.
As stated by Adekanye (2011), students who attend school with adequate human and materials resources perform better than those who attend school with poor resources.
Adesoya (2010) opined that schools where teachers loathe to work are schools that are ill equipped with necessary resources. This validates the fact that educational resources are necessary incentives or motivators for increasing teachers’ interest in their working this culminating in increasing productivity.
Contrary to beliefs that the quality of a graduate is not by itself a function of cost and that quality cannot be attainted, empirical findings have proved that the quality and quantity of resources used in instruction by teachers cannot be dissociated from the teachers’ eventual performance (Adesoya, 2011).
According to the recommendations of the Nigerian educational research commission (2008) in order to achieve good academic quality, the following factors deserve adequate attention” The training of the necessary cadres of teaches with adequate knowledge of what to teach and of the methodology that is most effective, followed by periods of practical experience internship during which their motivation and commitment are enhanced and they are assured of good conditions of work, regular opportunities for retaining, professional up grading and job satisfaction”.
Although inadequacy of resources is a prevalent occurrence in both public and private secondary schools, the level of teacher productivity is relatively high in private schools than that or their counterparts in public secondary school (Akinpelu, 2008).
This is because resources are relatively more available in private schools than in public schools. This can be traced to the fact that private schools enjoy private/individual participation in the provision of finance for acquiring necessary resources for the system while the public schools are limited to the government as their only sources of finances.
Therefore, the main preoccupation of this research work is to make findings on the impacts of the availability of resources on the productivity of teachers in Ilorin East local government of Kwara State in comparison between public and private secondary school.
Statement of the Problem
The major concern of this study is to evaluate the disparity in the availability of resources to public and private secondary schools in Ilorin East Local Government and its influence on teachers’ productivity.
The issue of low productivity of secondary school teachers are reflected in ineffectiveness of task performance results form the following
⦁ Inadequacy of resources available to teachers
⦁ In appropriate allocation of the available resources in school to teacher
⦁ Mismanagement of existing resources in the schools
⦁ Lack of sound application knowledge in the utilization of some of the resources available to the teachers.
⦁ Some of the resources available to teachers do not have much relevance to the context of instruction to be passed on to the students.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the educational resources available to secondary schools in terms of their allocations to teachers, adequacy and impact on teacher productivity.
It also aims at indentifying the resources needs of teachers in secondary schools and the importance of their adequacy and quality in aiding teachers in attaining the highest possible level of productivity.
Finally, it will examine the level of significance of the available resources on the teacher’s productivity in a comparisons between private and public secondary schools in Ilorin East Local Government.
This research is aimed at obtaining answers to the following questions:
1. To what extents do teachers in secondary school needs educational resources?
2. What impact do these resources have on teachers’ productivity/
3. To what extent are these resources provided to the teachers?
4. Are the resources made available to teacher of relevance to the instruction to be passed on the students?
H0: There is no significant relationship between resource availability and teacher productivity
H01: There is no significant relationship between human resources availability and teacher productivity
H02: There is no significant relationship between material resources availability and teacher productivity
H03: there is no significant relationship between financial resources availability and teacher productivity
Scope of the Study
The survey is to be carried out on some selected public and private secondary schools in Ilorin East Local government Area of Kwara State. It covers only nine (9) public and six (6) private schools due to time and monetary constraints. Therefore, it might not depict and exact picture of the situation in all secondary school in the country, with but will serve as an in sight into educational resource as well as teachers’ productivity with a view of making a comparison between private and public secondary schools, in Local Government Area.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms will likely be used frequency in this write up and are interpreted as follows:
Educational resources: Resources are inputs into an educational programme,. Which includes human, physical materials, financial and programmes.
Human resources:- There are skilled labour forces, which received education and professional training. They make use of other resources in the school system for the development and improvement of students. Teacher in secondary schools are basically sees as human resources.
Physical/materials resources:- This refers to concrete structure, fixtures, fitting and other consumable. In this study, they refer to chair, library, classrooms. Teaching aids textbooks etc.
Financial resources: This is the fund available to the educational system. The main sources of funds for educational sectors is the public sector (government), private sectors and external agencies.
Programme: These are organized series of producers agencies of the instruction to passed on to the students and usually serves as the basis of training or retaining of the teacher, curriculum, policies etc. Such training could be passes on to the teachers through workshops seminars etc.
Material Resources: These include the physical facilities or item such as sites building, furniture apparatus & equipment used in the school system.
Educational system:- This refers to the different level of educational in Nigeria. The basic levels of education in Nigerian are primary, secondary and tertiary. This study focuses on the secondary level of education.
Public school: These are publicly owned schools managed and financed by the government public schools in Ilorin East Local Government are those financed by the Government in Kwara State.
Private Schools:- These are school owned by individual and other non-governmental bodies. Such schools are managed and financed by ownership and are usually fee-paying.
Teacher productivity:- This is the level of effectiveness of the teachers impacting adequate knowledge to students. It is an unquantifiable concept, this context the student learning outcome serves as measures of teacher’s productivity..